Global Temperatures | Global Warming, is it Real?

Recent International News about Global Warming and a few link errors in our original webpage with this same title, prompted a recast of this page in the new format of this website and fix and amplify it.

It seems that only those with the least knowledge of the Climate Change situation seem to be arguing about the basic fact of Global Warming. It is real and to deny it, is, in our opinion, an indication that those who do so, should take the time to learn the real facts, and if necessary the science underlying them.To those who don’t trust science, better get rid of your TV, Internet, smartphone and all that other “stuff” based on real science; they are then, also, not tobe trusted.

Denials don’t change facts:

  • Glaciers are melting worldwide, so is sea ice.
  • The average temperature of the Earth has been increasing for many years,
  • Sea levels have been and continue rising.
  • Carbon Dioxide content in the atmosphere is increasing.

Real Climate BannerCountries meeting at U.N. environmental conference in Montreal Canada on November 20, 2005 adopted the rules for limiting emissions of greenhouse gases under the U.N.’s Kyoto Protocol.

Of course this is connected to the concerns over Global Warming, with Carbon Dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion long considered a major source contributing to the problem.

There has been some speculation in the media along with some outright condemnation of the concept of Global Warming. Yet, scientists and other media, mostly quoting science reports, indicate that Global Warming is indeed upon us.

The book The Discovery of Global Warming tells much of the history behind the concern. It would seem that it is about time we got up off our collective rear end and made some changes.

What is the truth? Is there a clear answer to the question about Global Warming’s reality? Is the science reliable?

Are the temperature measurements and trends of ancient temperature measurements to be believed?

What about the questions raised by many politicians and in books by more noted writers, like Michael Crichton in his best seller State of Fear?

Today the answer seems much clearer. It is a real concern.

We need to get our leaders to acknowledge the problem and take some positive steps to work with the rest of the industrial nations to abate it!

There is obviously much more.

First, realize that the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) published a detailed rebuttal to Crichton’s comments in his book. Their very interesting website also has a complete story on Global Warming, as one might expect from concerned scientists.

They are detail-oriented, not like most of the critics of global warming, many of whom appear to seek simple answers! No is the answer of those who refuse to face facts.

Then there is, a website founded and maintained by scientists to tell the story details about Global Warming, Climate Change and its likely consequences. It is a notable effort to help the rest of us understand the real debate – among scientists, not politicians, religious zealots or modern Luddites.

We found their website so compelling that we have added their current newsfeed at the top right of this page.

The American Institute of Physics has a summary page, part of a series of pages on the subject.They are authored by the same scientist and science historian, Dr. Spenser R. Weart who wrote the book on Global Warming described and pictured at the top of this page.The pages brings you up to date from the 2003 book through February 2014, with keylinks to other websites where the details can be found.The amount of evidence is staggering!

For those so inclined to do their own analyses, there are tons of data available from monitoring websites around the world.

One of the favorite data sources is the Hadley Meteorology Centre, a British Government facility, in the UK. Their webpage shows the impacts global annual increase of just a small amount.

They also publish the actual data in tabular format that can be easily imported into almost any spreadsheet like MS Excel, Pages, Lotus 1-2-3, Open Office or Star Office Calc, then plotted and analyzed separately from ones generated by the Hadley folks.

Is the data from which the averages are calculated valid? There’s little doubt mostly because there has been such widespread interest in the subject and it has been the attention of so many capable people.

Are the answer and the calculations simple? In a word, NO!

They are complex and require attention to all sorts of details including all the other influencing factors involved in cyclic and irregular changes in the Earth’s temperature and its distribution.

The recent, popular book, A Matter of Degrees by Prof. Gino Segre at the University of Pennsylvania talks about aspects of Earth’s temperature history and the many astronomical and other physical factors that influence it.

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and the World Resources Institute jointly operate a website called GLOBAL WARMING: Early Warning Signs at

They present a world map marked with tags to indicate “Fingerprints” and “Harbingers” of Global Warming as further education to the fact that Global Warming is not just happening in the future, it has already begun and the evidence is there, if we care to take notice.

Wikipedia, The Open and Free Encyclopedia on the Web has an extensive array of articles and links about Global Warming. As of December 2, 2005, the following statement, with embedded links to sources, appeared in the article:

“The scientific consensus on global warming is that the Earth is warming, and that humanity’s greenhouse gas emissions are making a significant contribution. This consensus is summarized by the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

In the Third Assessment Report, the IPCC concluded that “most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities”. This position was recently supported by an international group of science academies from the G8 countries and Brazil, China and India”. <

There are many more websites with wide ranging information about this and related ecological conditions. One of the best that we have found is ClimateArk the Climate Change Portal. It has an RSS news feed that is updated daily and a search engine that searches the entire contents of 2000 reviewed climate websites.


A product with a unique advantage

EE33 sensor tube - thermal image

EE33 sensor tube – thermal image

Air humidity and temperature play an important role in meteorology. Highly accurate measurements of these climate parameters form the basis of accurate forecasts and meaningful records.

The E+E Elektronik Model EE33 series humidity and temperature sensor is the only one on the market with a double-heated probe. Both the sensor tube and the sensor element are heated.

An application note, free for download from their website, tells the rest of the story.

You can download it be clicking here.

If that does not work, as sometimes happens when organizations “refine” their websites, we have archived a copy in our database; it may be downloaded here: Humidity_measurement_meteorology

Related technical webpages & download from E+E Elektronik:

E+E Elektronik – the Sensor specialist for humidity sensors, CO2 sensors, moisture in oil, dew point, air velocity, flow and temperature sensors. As a specialist for sensors E+E Elektronik produces humidity sensorsCO2 sensorsflow sensors, transmitters, hand-held meters and  dataloggers for the measurement of relative humiditymoisture in oildewpoint,
air velocityflowCO2 and temperature. E+E also operates a nationally accredited calibration lab and is appointed to maintain the “National Standard for Humidity and Air Flow Speed in Austria”

World HQ

E+E Elektronik Ges.m.b.H.
Langwiesen 7
A-4209 Engerwitzdorf

Tel: +43 (0)7235 605-0
Fax: +43 (0)7235 605-8


E+E Elektronik Corp.
124 Grove Street
Franklin, MA 02038
United States

Tel: +1 508 530 3068
Fax: +1 508 346 3798

Measuring Moisture in Wood

Methods of Moisture Content Measurement in the Lumber and Furniture Industries*

by: Phil Mitchell, Assistant Professor and Wood Products Extension Specialist, North Carolina State University


The moisture content of wood is a basic property that can impact subsequent machining, gluing, finishing, and product performance. It is the job of wood product producers to establish a moisture content in the wood that will be similar to what the wood will experience in service.

To accomplish that, manufacturers must develop a standard procedure that will measure wood moisture content consistently and accurately.

This brief note discusses methods of moisture content measurement commonly found in the lumber and furniture industries.

Ovendry Moisture Measurement

The “true” moisture content (MC) of wood is defined by the ovendry method.

According to the Wood Handbook, ovendry wood is defined as “wood dried to a relatively constant weight in a ventilated oven at 102 to 105 °C (218 °F +3 °F).” An oven with circulating fans is preferred over a convection oven, but it is more important to have a working thermometer inserted in the hole in the top of the oven.

In the kiln drying of lumber, moisture sections cut from sample boards are recommended to be 1″ along the grain.

For weighing these moisture sections, the balance should have a capacity of at least 1,000 grams and weigh to at least 0.1 gram (0.01 gram is preferable).

For most sample boards, the balance should have a maximum capacity of 15,000 grams (33 pounds) and weigh to the nearest 1 gram.

For operations that process wide, high density hardwoods the maximum capacity should be 20,000 to 30,000 grams (44 to 66 pounds).

As mentioned, the ovendry MC is assumed to be the true or actual MC. In reality, there are several sources of error in practical ovendry moisture content determination.

Three of the most common errors include:

  1. incorrect oven temperature;
  2. incomplete drying of small moisture sections; and
  3. moisture pickup by dry sections from newly introduced green sections.

Let’s consider each error in more detail.

The oven should be set at 218 °F + 3 °F.

An oven that is 35 °F is  too cool will have an equilibrium moisture content (EMC) approaching 1% on a warm, foggy morning. As a result, the ovendry weight may be overestimated by 1%, resulting in underestimating the final MC by 1% MC.

In turn, this will cause: schedules being advanced too early (possibly causing additional degrade); equalizing and conditioning that are less effective because they are begun too soon; and a final MC that is on average 1% too high.

A working thermometer in the oven will help insure that the correct temperature is maintained.

The second error listed is incomplete drying of small moisture sections. This might happen when kiln operators establish a time based routine for drying sections, and do not check to see that ovendrying continues until a constant weight is reached.

With low density species, failure to remove even just 0.5 grams of moisture can underestimate the MC of sample boards by 1.5%.

Lastly, adding green moisture sections to an oven with nearly dry moisture sections can temporarily raise the oven’s EMC (especially in a convection oven). If you cannot avoid this situation, the solution is to have two or more drying ovens.

Electric Moisture Meters

Electric moisture meters allow the user to rapidly and accurately estimate wood moisture contents less than 30%. Most hand held moisture meters are typically either resistance (pin type) or dielectric (flat plate) meters.

In the past, meter readings needed to be corrected for species and temperature by hand using printed tables. Today, commercially available state-of-the-art moisture meters have species and temperature corrections built into the digital circuitry.

In addition, the newer meters are capable of taking multiple measurements and storing them internally, providing the ability to calculate and display mean and standard deviation statistics, and the option of downloading the MC data to a computer.

The ability to transfer data to a computer is a significant plus if you want to plug moisture measurement into a quality control program.

Both types of meters offer the same accuracy over about the same range of moisture contents.

None of these meters provide accurate readings above 25 to 30% MC. Your decision on which type of meter to obtain depends on your needs.

Further details about resistance and dielectric meters are provided below.

Resistance Moisture Meters

The operating range for resistance moisture meters is from 7 to 25% MC. This type of meter uses pin type electrodes that penetrate the wood up to depths of 2½ inches.

To determine the average MC, the depth of penetration should be ¼ the thickness of rough lumber, and 1/5 the thickness of planed lumber.

Resistance meters have an average accuracy of + 1% MC over their operating range.

Resistance meters made and marketed in the US have pins that must be inserted parallel to the grain so the current will run along the grain rather than across the grain. If the pins are inserted across the grain, the meter will read too low by 1 to 2% MC.

Caution: Because meters manufactured in other countries may differ in this regard, it is important to follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer.

Resistance moisture meters are sensitive to the temperature of the wood. New meters on the market today allow the user to specify the wood temperature, and the meter automatically makes the correction.

A very rough estimate of the temperature correction can be obtained by subtracting 1% MC from the reading for every 20oF the temperature of the wood is above 70 °F , and adding 1% MC for every 20 °F below 70 °F .

Resistance meters were originally based on Douglas-fir, and the resistance characteristics of many domestic woods are similar to those of Douglas-fir.

At 8% MC, most domestic woods are within 1.5% MC of the Douglas-fir reading; at 16% MC domestic woods are within 3% MC of the Douglas-fir reading. Differences among species occur mainly due to differences in the extractives between woods.

Tropical woods often require much larger corrections due to higher amounts of extractives than domestic woods. Fortunately, today’s resistance meters typically include built-in corrections for most domestic and many foreign woods.

It should be noted that if these corrections are being done by hand using printed tables, the temperature correction should be made first, followed by the species correction.

Moisture gradients can be measured with resistance meters. When using pins that are not insulated, the meter will record the highest wood MC with which it comes into contact.

The measurement of moisture gradients requires the use of pins coated with insulation (the pin tip is not coated). With insulated pins, the MC is measured at the furthest depth that the pins penetrate into the wood.

When measuring kiln dried lumber with a normal moisture gradient, driving the insulated pins deeper into the wood will encounter wetter wood resulting in higher MC readings. This allows the kiln operator to get a rapid estimate of shell to core MC differences.

Insulated pins also help avoid false high readings if the lumber has been surface wetted with rain or dew.

It is very important that the calibration of your resistance meter be checked periodically. This can be done with either the built in calibration function, or with the use of a calibration bar that provides a known resistance equal to a specified MC when placed across the pins.

Pocket sized meters typically have the pins built into the housing rather than having a separate electrode connected by a cable.

These short pins generally do not penetrate as deep, and are limited to spot checking as they are not rugged enough to withstand production quality control work, and usually cannot fit insulated pins to check moisture gradients.

Dielectric Moisture Meters

The operating range for dielectric moisture meters is generally considered to be greater than that for resistance moisture meters, and is often stated to range from 4½ to 25% MC.

Dielectric meters use surface contact, flat plate electrodes that do not penetrate the wood. The depth of penetration by the measuring field ranges from 0.5″ to 1.0″ depending on the model.

Field penetration should be half the thickness of the wood being tested. In situations where the field penetration is greater than the thickness of the wood, care should be taken as the reading will be affected by the material beneath.

Suggestions to avoid this error include: taking measurements on top of a stack of similar material with similar moisture content; using rigid polystyrene foam as a backing; or making the measurement with nothing but air beneath the wood being metered.

Dielectric meters read the average MC of the zone penetrated by the electric field. Similar to resistance meters, the accuracy of dielectric meters in measuring average MC is + 1% moisture content.

The readings are reportedly most influenced by the wood nearest the electrode, and are consequently more reliable on wood with a fairly uniform MC than on wood with substantial moisture gradients. Dielectric moisture meters are not useful in determining moisture gradients.

Commercially available dielectric moisture meters do not require a temperature correction between 32 °F to 250 °F.

Kiln operators sometimes use these meters to quickly look for “wet pockets” in the lumber before they pull the kiln.

Corrections for wood species, however, must be performed due to density differences between species. Many dielectric meters marketed today have species corrections built into the digital circuitry of the meter.

For species corrections not provided with the program, it will be necessary to determine the representative average specific gravity of the wood, and adjust the meter accordingly. The user can then evaluate the species adjustment by comparing meter readings (using the measured specific gravity factor) from representative samples with the MC determined by ovendrying.

For dense lumber of a given species, the MC readings will be erroneously high.

The considerable normal density variation within many species limits the accuracy of dielectric meters.

An idea of the accuracy achievable with a species can be obtained by using wood samples representative of the density variation typical of the species and comparing meter readings with the MC determined by ovendrying.

The surface contacting electrode can be placed with any grain orientation on the side grain of wood with little effect on the meter reading. It should not, however, be used to measure MC on the end grain.

It is also important that the electrode is in firm contact with the wood surface; hence moisture measurement in cupped lumber may be erroneous if the electrode is not in complete contact with the wood.

Comparing Resistance and Dielectric Meters

Both types of meters measure wood MC with the same accuracy over about the same moisture range. Although one type of meter is not clearly better than the other, one meter type might better meet your needs.

Let’s compare some of the advantages and disadvantages of these two types of meters.

  • With pins that penetrate the lumber, resistance meters leave holes in the wood. Dielectric meters use surface contact electrodes that are non-invasive and leave no marks.
  • The use of insulated pins with resistance meters allows the measurement of lumber moisture gradients which is useful to kiln operators. Dielectric meters cannot provide gradient information but instead give the average MC of a slightly larger area. In addition, dielectric meters are more reliable on wood having a fairly uniform MC than on wood with substantial moisture gradients (early morning surface dew can cause reading errors).
  • Dielectric meters can read to slightly lower MC than resistance meters.
  • Resistance meters are not sensitive to differences in wood density. Although dielectric meters provide species corrections that are based on average species density, the MC readings are sensitive to within species variation in density.
  • Resistance meters typically are used with a separate hammer/electrode probe, making them more bulky to carry around on the factory floor. In addition, these electrodes require frequent attention due to broken or loose pins or broken cables, and can be sensitive to static electricity in dry, cold weather. Because the moisture sensing element is built into the case of the dielectric meter, it is more compact and easier to carry around the plant.

Which is the best portable meter?

The answer, of course, is the meter that meets your needs.

If you dry and sell lumber, you should consider using the same meter that your customer is using.

If you use lumber in a manufacturing process, the best meter is the one that will be used! For many plants it makes sense to use both types of meters.

In-Line Moisture Meters

The resistance and dielectric technologies used in portable meters has been applied in the development of in-line moisture meters. In-line moisture meters are commonly used to measure the moisture content of each piece of lumber.

The meters are typically located on the lumber chain in front of the planer, or at the planer outfeed, and are capable of either painting or dropping wet lumber out at a tipple gate.

Some in-line meters can be purchased with an information and statistical package, which allows MC data collected from a kiln or package to be stored in a computer along with the mean and other statistics.

Resistance in-line moisture meters use wire brushes that resemble drum snares to contact the wood’s surface and measure MC. Resistance in-line meters are primarily used to measure the MC of dry veneer, but are sometimes used to monitor the MC of lumber.

These meters are very sensitive to surface moisture.

Because their most appropriate use is on veneer, the remainder of the discussion on in-line moisture meters will examine dielectric meters.

The technology used in dielectric meters has been applied in the development of the in-line moisture meter.

With the in-line meter configuration, however, the sensor electrodes do not contact the wood. Two types of sensors are available.

  1. The transverse sensor measures the MC as the lumber travels sideways down the lumber chain. This arrangement typically uses multiple heads that scan the lumber from the bottom side.
  2. The longitudinal sensor, or end to end sensor, uses a two-sided head to measure the MC at the planer outfeed.

In-line moisture meters are used extensively in the softwood lumber industry to detect wet lumber. They are usually installed in the package breakdown area, often immediately behind the planer.

These meters measure every piece of lumber without contacting it. With softwood lumber destined primarily for construction, these meters are used principally to detect wet lumber which would be off grade.

The meters are capable of storing data for whole kiln charges by lumber package. This allows kiln troubleshooting by knowing the location of each package within the kiln.

Although these meters have not found widespread application in furniture rough mills, they do offer the potential to reduce the introduction of off-spec MC lumber to further processing.

A furniture rough mill operation that allows a high MC piece of lumber to be cut and processed into perhaps as many as a dozen or more parts will potentially allow that number of finished furniture pieces to become defective with parts that will likely shrink and prove dimensionally unstable.

An in-line moisture meter can also be used to determine and record the MC of each piece of purchased lumber.

The reaction of the dry kiln operator may be to resist this technology since the MC of every piece of lumber will be checked; but with time the kiln operator will recognize this tool as an ally.

For example, if management insists that the lumber be pulled too early, the effect of inadequate equalization on MC variability will be documented by the in-line moisture meter.

Over time, the kiln operator will be able to use the meter to identify areas of the kiln that exhibit unbalanced drying conditions, and make maintenance recommendations based on MC information generated from the in-line moisture meter.


This note has discussed the practical aspects of wood MC measurement. The ovendrying method defines the wood moisture content, while measurements obtained with electric meters are estimates of the “true” ovendry moisture content.

Portable resistance and dielectric meters available today can accurately read moisture contents below 30% to + 1% moisture content.

In-line moisture meters are capable of determining the moisture content of every piece of lumber.

Because wood shrinks and swells as it either loses or gains moisture, it is important that the manufacturer produce wood having a MC close to the moisture content it will reach in service.

Wood whose MC changes significantly in-use will be prone to checking, splitting, warping, opening of glue joints, and cracking of finishes. Knowledge and control of wood moisture are critical in the manufacturing of quality products made from wood.


* NOTE: This is reprinted here in its entirety with a few modifications, mostly to make it easier to read online. As far as we know, this article is not copyrighted and, like many online articles may disappear from the Web for a variety of reasons. We think it is too informative to be left hidden on a University website that could change and make it unavailable in the future.

The Significance of Thermowells

Consider relevant factors and standards

Thermowell Drawing

Thermowell Drawing
Courtesy ISA InTech

Online — In a May/June 2013 article in InTech Magazine Basics of thermowell design and selection”, author Ehren Kiker describes why thermowells are important and how their key parameters can be determined for a particular use situation.

The article begins:

“When planning for a temperature measurement application, a fair amount of consideration is typically given to sensor selection (e.g., thermocouple vs. RTD) and wiring of the output (e.g., transmitter vs. direct wiring), and how these factors will affect the measurement. Often, by comparison, relatively little consideration is given to the mechanical components of the sensor assembly, particularly the thermowell.

“Of all the components in a typical temperature assembly, a thermowell would seem to be the simplest and least critical. In reality, the thermowell is fundamentally important because it directly and significantly affects the life span of the sensor and accuracy of the measurement. It also protects the closed process, providing plant and personnel safety.”

Click here to read the full article now.


Ehren Kiker ( is a product manager with Endress+Hauser with more than 15 years of experience in process control instrumentation.

Intech MagazineInTech Magazine provides the most thought-provoking and authoritative coverage of automation technologies, applications, and strategies to enhance automation professionals’ on-the-job success.

There is much more online at:

About ISA

The International Society of Automation ( is a nonprofit professional association that sets the standard for those who apply engineering and technology to improve the management, safety, and cybersecurity of modern automation and control systems used across industry and critical infrastructure.\

Wake Frequency Calculator by TempSens Instrument

Plus two additional Calculators

Wake_Frequency_CalculatorAn online resource calculator for estimating the Wake Frequency of a thermowell in a flowing stream.

According to the website:

“TEMPSENS WAKE FREQUENCY CALCULATOR is easy to use and it also ensures that thermowell is designed within the dimensional limits of PTC19.3, 2010. This calculator establishes the practical design considerations for Thermowell installations in power and process piping, which also incorporates the latest theory in the areas of natural frequency, Strouhal frequency, in-line resonance and stress evaluation.”

The same webpage provides a Temperature Calculator to convert the Emf (mV)/Ohms generated by thermocouple & RTD to the temperature or vice versa as well as a SPRT Calculator to provide the ITS-90 coefficients for the set of resistance readings provided on the fixed point cell.

Multilingual Humidity Calculator Online

From E+E Elektronik


Multilingual Humidity Calculator Online at E+E Elektronik’s website

The humidity calculator from E+E Elektronik is used for the rapid conversion of humidity measurements.

Uniquely, the humidity calculator also includes measurement uncertainties in the calculation.

The humidity calculator can be used online using your favorite Web browser. Thus, it does  not require any program to be installed on a PC.


An Explanation of humidity calculator measurements is found here. But it is more than a simple help page it is, as entitled on the E+E Electronik website “Explanation of humidity calculator measurements”, with a definition or description of each term and the appropriate measurement units and commonly used symbol for them .

About E+E Electronik

E+E Elektronik Develops and produces sensors for measurement of relative humidity, CO2, air velocity and mass flow. It also is passionate about development and production of humidity calibration systems, so much so that E+E Elektronik as a “designated laboratory” is commissioned to provide and further develop the national etalon for humidity and air velocity for Austria.

E + E Elektronik Ges.m.b.H
Langwiesen 7
A-4209 Engerwitzdorf

T: +43 7235 605-0
F: +43 7235 605-8
E: info@epluse(dot)com

Multiple Sensor Type Vendors

There are numerous distributors who sell many temperature sensor products and accessories, among other things. Some manufacturers specialize in producing a significant number (usually three or more) of different types of temperature sensors and sell to either a distributor network or directly to the public by Internet and/or Catalog sales (telephone or mail).

Start your search either here for vendors of multiple types or, if you are seeking a specific type, go to the vendor page index or directly to a page describing sensor types; you can find the vendors of specific types from many different places there.

When all else seems to have failed, try our built-in search engine – see text box input  above.

But if that fails to help you find what you need, try our more extensive, free directory website It is not maintained as often as this site, but may have what you seek.

  1. Chaney Instruments, Inc (USA)
    Their full line of NSF-certified, professional-quality kitchen thermometers have something for every application: refrigeration, freezing, deep-frying, meat preparation and milk frothing as well.
  2. Cole-Parmer (USA)
    All kinds of laboratory thermometers including pocket bimets.
  3. W. H. Cooke & Co., Inc.(USA)
    A thermocouple manufacturer that specializes in specialty thermocouples and related temperature indicators and controllers for the Baking Industry. Also a manufacturers rep for other instrumentation; in Maryland .
  4. EDL, Inc,(USA)
    Temperature sensors, RTDs, TCs, thermometer pyrometers – also offer a wide range of value-priced temperature indicators and related specialty products.
  5. ETI Ltd (UK)
    Electronic Temperature Instruments, probes and accessories, including  Differential Digital thermometer, thermo-hygrometer & timber building moisture meters..
  6. Electrical & Electronics Corporation (India)
    Process Control Instrumentation Sensors and Accessories, e.g. Thermocouples, RTD’s, Cables & Thermowells
  7. Exacon (Denmark)
    Pages of medical temperature sensors
  8. JMS Southeast (USA)
    Statesville ,North Carolina, …. TC maker and supplier of all kinds of temperature sensors to industry and commerce.
  9. Kobold Instruments, Inc. –
    Temperature Switches, Temperature
  10. Minco Products., (USA)
    Manufacturers of thermocouples, RTDs and more in Minneapolis MN,
  11. Omega Engineering(USA)
    The mega Catalog and web vendor of temperature and other sensors with offices and websites in England, Germany and elsewhere.
  12. Palmer Instruments Inc.(USA)
    Specializing in Glass Thermometers, but covering a wide array of products. Part of the Instrumentation Group that includes Wahl Instruments, noted for its IR Thermometers.
  13. PCE Instruments(Germany)
    PCE Instruments offers a broad range of products from the field of measuring instruments. Here you can find all various types of testing and measuring instruments, handheld and desktop
  14. Peak Sensors (UK)
    A relatively new company specialising in the manufacture of TCs, RTDs, Thermowells, and platinum sheathed sensors for the glass industry. Also supply associated equipment such as ceramics and other components.
  15. Pentronic (Sweden)
    A leading supplier of temperature measurement equipment in Scandinavia for industry, research and education. Manufactures primarily Pt 100 and thermocouple elements. Their calibration laboratory is accredited.
  16. Philadelphia Instruments and Controls, Inc.(USA)
    Specializes in the production of temperature related products, such as liquid-in-glass thermometers-specialty units for candy making & more. A most interesting website especially the “DID YOU KNOW?” list of historic thermometer facts .
  17. Precon, Inc. (USA)
    NTC Thermistors, RTDs, and Humidity Sensors available in standards or custom probes. Precon also designs and builds controllers and can provide turnkey sensing and control solutions
  18. Tech Instrumentation (USA)
    Tech Instrumentation offers a extensive variety of temperature measuring instrumentation from inexpensive bi-metalic and glass thermometers to rugged, precise industrial thermometers.
  19. ThermoWorks (USA)
    New outlet for fast digital Thermometers, Type K thermocouples, digital meat thermometers, thermistor sensor probes, temperature loggers, TC probes, IR thermometers, HACCP thermometers and more.

Thank you for visiting!


 With many offices throughout the world


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About FLIR Systems

FLIR Systems, Inc. is a world leader in the design, manufacture, and marketing of sensor systems that enhance perception and awareness.

FLIR’s advanced systems and components are used for a wide variety of thermal imaging, situational awareness, and security applications, including airborne and ground-based surveillance, condition monitoring, navigation, recreation, research and development, manufacturing process control, search and rescue, drug interdiction, transportation safety, border and maritime patrol, environmental monitoring, and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) threat detection.

For more information, visit FLIR’s web site at and their more complete list of offices at:

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Thermocouple Junctions Are Not Voltage Sources!

by R. P. Reed, Ph.D, PEret

NOTE: The following is a brief overview of a special article written and published here by a noted authority on thermocouples. Dr. Ray P. Reed. Dr. Reed is a retired researcher from Sandia Laboratories in New Mexico, USA.

He is a semi-retired, yet still a contributing member of the ASTM International Committee E20 on Temperature Measurement. He has written and presented many professional and peer-reviewed articles on temperature sensors, notably thermocouples in his long career.

His list of publications is on another page on this website,

This new article from R.P. Reed is published with his permission and is in downloadable format.

It is in Adobe PDF format and its size is about 310 kb.

Here’s a sample of the initial paragraph of the article:

“Thermocouples, based on the Seebeck effect, remain the simplest, most widely used, electrical sensor of temperature. Thermocouples consist only of thermoelectrically dissimilar conductor legs connected at junctions. The Seebeck emf occurs only in the legs. Therefore, commonplace calibration and thermometry errors relate to degraded thermoelements, not to junctions. A yet commonplace implicit Junction-Source Model incorrectly asserts that Seebeck emf occurs only in junctions. That erroneous concept hides problems that are commonplace in consequential thermometry.”

Link to a full Introduction to the article and the download link Link: junctions are not voltage sources!/

TI Temperature Measurement Videos

TI, or Texas Instruments, is one of the world’s most prolific and largest makers of temperature sensors. They make all kinds but their sensors are mostly in the form of Integrated Circuit semiconductors.

TI also does an exceptional job in educating users how their devices work and how they can be interfaced and incorporated in measurement systems. Especially useful are the videos showing how some of their other integrated circuit modules can be used with external temperature sensors, like Thermocouples, RTDs and Thermistors.

Here’s an example of an interesting one:

Developed through TI’s expertise in MEMS technology, the TMP006 is the first of a new class of ultra-small, low power, and low cost passive infrared temperature sensors. It has 90% lower power consumption and is more than 95% smaller than existing solutions, making contactless temperature measurement possible in completely new markets and applications.

Check out their Video Channel on YouTube, especially the long list of videos already published about “Temperature Measurement”. It very straightforward; just go to: