Sensors and Thermal Imagers In SARS Counter Measures
(Note: Links indicated are to sources and
to more detailed information about temperature sensors)
| || |
News Asia -Singapore:
June 17, 2003 |
precautions will not be relaxed soon. Committee head, Home Affairs Minister
Wong Kan Seng, reveals dthis as he began initiative to distribute SARS toolkits
to homes, starting in Bishan.
m ore than a million kits, include a digital thermometer and surgical masks.
News Asia -Singapore:
June 17, 2003 |
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has developed anti-SARS measures
for international airports. based on guidelines issued by the World Health Organisation.
measures include screening of incoming and outgoing passengers and airport workers,
information for passengers about SARS, and procedures to handle suspect cases.
will also evaluate and certify the implementation. Changi Airport in Singapore
will be the first to be evaluated.
KUWAIT CITY, June 11
A reliable source was quoted in this web article claiming that the national committee
formed to fight SARS plans to increase the medical staff and devices to measure
temperature of arriving passengers at the airport to keep up with the expected
summer increase in travellers.
Luck has spared USA from SARS epidemic so far, according to Michael Lynn,
a visiting fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC)
at a panel sponsored by the Institute for International Studies. He was skeptical
of the understanding among Washington policymakers. "They've been congratulating
themselves we've done such a fantastic job in this country ... [that] we've done
everything right," he said. "I would argue that is exactly the wrong
lesson to take from SARS. I think we've been exceptionally lucky [that no one
in the United States has died from SARS] and that this will come back to haunt
us if we're not careful next fall and winter. If SARS follows the traditional
appearance pattern of influenza, I suspect we will see a lot more cases at that
News Asia 08
June 2003 |
senior officials from Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam visited Singapore on
a 3-day study trip to learn from Singapore's experience in dealing with the SARS
outbreak. After a stop at Tan Tock Seng Hospital to undergo temperature checks
they visited Geylang Polyclinic. The visitors were then briefed by the Health
Ministry and the Immigration & Checkpoints Authority on health screening,
anti-SARS measures and other strategies used to fight SARS.
June 09, 2003 |
The Ministry of Manpower (MOM), Singapore, has imposed a second level of checks
to guard against transfer of SARS after initial border inspections. MOM says that
as of Monday, June 9, 2003, employers will have to insure daily temperature checks
for all workers in construction worksites, shipyards, factories having more than
25 workers and foreign worker dormitories.
Singapore on the Web-June 3, 2003.
SPRING Singapore National Conference on Thermal Imagers for Fever Screening
-(Selection, Usage and Testing), program, posted on their Metrology.org.sg
Web site has been summarized with hot links to the presentations on our web
site on the new page, "SARS-Thermal Imager". The presentations
can be directly downloaded by using the links on either site.
note that the paper by Jim Sefferin, Director of the Infraspection Institute,
given at the meeting, is available as a compressed zip file on the SPRING site,
but is also now on the home page of the IR/INFO.org
Channel News Asia SINGAPORE:
Secretary-General of Health ,Alias Ali, was shown by Singapore at the Causeway
border crossing between Singapore and Malasia along with one of the six expensive
thermal imagers in use. He says he has full confidence in the measures taken by
Singapore. "I've always had high regard for Singapore and what Singapore
has done. When I come here and go out of Singapore, I am very reassured you are
still doing a good job and we are very appreciative of that".
Permanent Secretary for Home Affairs, Tan Guong Ching said: "There'll be
no let up in preventing the import or export of SARS, all our temperature taking
practices continue. It's the only prudent thing to do because there's still SARS
cases reported in the region."
News Asia-Singapore |
02 June 2003
and private companies continuing anti-SARS measures including thermal imaging
screening at government buildings and hotels in addition to airport and border
1 June 2003, |
is distributing free thermometers as part of their campaign against SARS.
want everyone to take their temperature twice a day during the ten-day
campaign. Ten days is believed to be the incubation period of the virus.
local governments are offering prizes for people who finish the 10-day temperature
to Improve SARS Detection Measures with agreement with Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia,
the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam Brunei, Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos.
In the past few months, China has screened 12.5 million arriving and departing
passengers, sending nearly 400 people to hospitals for observation and finding
five confirmed SARS cases.
News Asia-Singapore-Local news
01 June 2003 |
The more than 900,000 Singapore households to get thermometers,
anti-SARS kits next week. Minister for Information, Communications and the Arts
Dr Lee Boon Yang said,"We will be distributing shortly thermometers to all
our homes. By next week or so we'll be starting to distribute to the various constituencies
and our grassroots organisations are being mobilised to help us distribute these
anti- SARS kits and thermometers and teach the people how to use the thermometers
Singapore on the Web-May 31, 2003.
Singapore posts the visual presentations from a May 30th National Conference
on Thermal Imagers for Fever Screening -(Selection, Usage and Testing), on
Channel News Asia
May 30, 2003-Singapore.
in Singapore have implemented a new temperature regime for pupils who are
12 years old and below from May 30th.
SARS: Rome May 26
A NEW INFRARED THERMAL SYSTEM TO SCREEN BODY TEMPERATURES (AGI)
An infrared, high resolution system to be installed in airports for screening
for fever-related high body temperature has been produced by the Vitrociset group
in collaboration with National Instruments and FLIR Systems. ||
Engineering Will NOT SELL Industrial IR Thermometers for SARS Screening use!
on the Omega Engineering Web site includes the following statements that are in
concert with the findings published by SPRING Singapore. (see article below)
OMEGA's IR devices are intended for scientific, technical and industrial purposes
ONLY. They are NOT to be used as a diagnostic tool in relation to the SARS
epidemic, since they are NOT designed for, intended to, or capable of measuring
human body temperature."
"Please Also Note:
sold by OMEGA is not intended to be used, nor shall it be used: (1) as a "Basic
Component" under 10 CFR 21 (NRC), used in or with any nuclear installation
or activity; or (2) in medical applications or used on humans, or misused in any
Omega does not sell Infrared Thermal Imaging Systems.
SPRING Singapore announces
a May 30th Conference onNational Conference on
Thermal Imagers for Fever
- Selection, Usage and Testing
The conference is aimed at providing timely information on the state-of-the-art
technology for body temperature measurement and devices, especially thermal imaging
systems, and the evaluation of such systems for fever detection, which is essential
for SARS screening. It will also provide the users and suppliers an opportunity
for exchanging, updating and sharing information on various systems and their
Conference will be held in the Singapore Sheraton Towers from 9:00am to 5:00pm
May 30, 2003.
on-line registration package is available for download.
Results of Tests Conducted
by SPRING Singapore on Thermometers and Thermal Imagers Now
Include Thermal Imagers.
Singapore has tested 3 more types of temperature measuring devices, in addition
to the report below in a May 13th Channel News Asia article.
This new report
covers contact clinical oral and forehead strip thermometers, (spot) Industrial
Infrared Thermometers and five different Temperature-Measuring Thermal Imaging
Systems. The conclusions were that the clinical thermometers were adequate while
the the Industrial IR thermometers were not.
Four of the five Imaging
systems that used a reference of thermal source and detected differences above
the reference were found to have adequate sensitivitity and stability to be used
for mass screening purposes. Follow up (verification) with another, more precise
clinical thermometer is a necessary second step to confirm the results of a screening.
Times Asia- May 25, 2002|
Singapore school temperature checks are being refined because some healthy children
are being kept away from school because they have higher-than-normal body temperatures.
The Health and Education ministries are looking at ways to ensure they can attend
classes. Minister of State for Education Ng Eng Hen said yesterday, 'We have to
protect the community and, at the same time, ascertain that for this small group,
the temperature is normal for them, so they can continue with their classes,'.
Apparently a 10-year-old girl had been isolated in class for more than two weeks,
because her temperature was consistently around 37.8 °C. Many tests were run
and nothing was found wrong with her.
Times Asia- May 25, 2002
The World Health Organisation (WHO), impressed with how Singapore has coped with
SARS and its demonstrated expertise, wants The Singapore Republic to become a
full member of its global alert and response network.
Sars is the main item on the infectious disease map today, an Ebola outbreak is
occuring now in The Republic of Congo. It is important that more countries share
the workload and expertise in dealing with infectious diseases and the related
public health issues.
Under WHO's auspices, Britain provided 11 public-health
experts and the USA sent more than 30 to help SARS-stricken countries including
Instruments International reported on May 21 2003 that they had received
orders for 10 Human BODY TEMPERATURE SCREENING IMAGER from the engineering Dept
at Singapore's Changi Airport. Recent trials and demonstrations have shown that
the special new thermal imaging system developed by Land Instruments gives the
most consistent results when checking for elevated temperatures indicating thepossible
presence of the deadly SARS virus. Systems have also been sold in Saudi Arabia,
Dubai and Taiwan. The Land system includes a blackbody reference source in each
image for precision results.||
Unconfirmed reports on CANADA Health trials of three competitive thermal imaging
systems at Vancouver International Airport (see brief article two blocks below)
tell about accuracy tests conducted on the three different systems using the same
Infrared Blackbody calibration source. These comparisons resulted in one system
showing calibration bias of 0.1°C, the second of +2.4 °C and another of
the accuracy of human body temperature screening results must begin with an instrument
having a calibration bias less than the desired discrimination of about 0.25 °C.
Some amount of equpiment standardization is obviously needed as are standardized
testing practices. There is nothing technically new in this area and this example
illustrates the need for objective standards development in both the performance
and use of Infrared Thermal Imagers like those that exist for ear thermometers.
May 20, 2003 |
installs thermal scanners at Tel Aviv international Airport.
whose body temperature is over 38 degrees and who arrived from one of the high-risk
countries will be subject to further testing. If necessary, the travellers will
be taken to hospital," Israel's Health Ministry said in a statement
sends two thermal scanners to Beijing Capital Airport, ventilators to help China
fight SARS. Singapore agencies are working with WHO to provide SARS test kits
and training to China.
Sars - 12 May 2003-
will become the first country outside Hong Kong and Singapore to use an infrared
camera to check air travellers for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) on
TO AN EARLIER REPORTMikron
Systems and Cantronic
systems have been choosen for SARS screening tests that are underway in CANADA,
first at Vancouver International Airport and later at Toronto airport. It has
been reported previously that one of the systems was selected and the report implied
that one company's unit had been purchased. That evidently is not true. We apologise
for any reporting error. As far as we know the tests are ongoing. Some data was
leaked from the trials and that is reported two blocks above.
News Asia May 13, 2003 "Oral thermometers the most accurate, says Spring
Singapore" (SPRING is the National Measurement Laboratory of Singapore.)
"Hospitals still use oral and not ear measurement as their standard
as this is the most accurate. Our test results indicate that oral thermomteters
whether disposable, digital or liquid-in-glass, have an accuracy of plus or minus
0.1 degrees Celcius."according to Chief Executive, Lee Suan Hiang.
rest of the article goes on to describe the accuracy of ear thermometers(±
0.2°C) (ear units with broken or dirty covers can skew readings by more
than 3 degrees), industrial thermometer (±3 °C), strip thermometers
(±1°C), and a new model -- the clinical forehead thermometer
(more expensive clinical model than digital ear thermometers but less intrusive
and equally accurate.)(refer to the description on our
SARSSENSORS page under Exergen Corp)
A Rush of Products Ready (or Not) to Fight SARS? Washington Post-May 10, 2003
A brief article about some of the unusual items being offered to the public to
help combat SARS. among them are comments about IR temperature-measuring devices
that contain at least a germ of truth. In essence the article states that some
governments in Asia have placed infrared detectors at airports to screen for elevated
body temperatures as people pass. Sceptically, the article says that such detectors
have proven useful as quality monitoring devices in manufacturing, but there is
not a lot of evidence that they can reliably distinguish a person carrying a virus.
that note is literally true, the facts belie the implied scepticism. Such devices,
if properly characterized and used can distinguish a person with an elevated surface
temperature in a group of people with "normal" temperatures as many
of images and claims made by many organizations, are seen on our SARSSENSORs
page. Subsequent check for fever with an oral or ear thermometer can settle the
question. The real concerns are cases where the screening cameras indicate false
negatives, implying that a person with a fever does not have one.
Inc. In its ITC
Newsletter of May 7,2003, says that "..it has received orders for over
50 cameras for use at airports, hospitals and other locations in Taiwan and Korea.
These cameras will be used to help detect fever, a possible precursor to severe
acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The cameras can accurately measure temperature
and can be programmed to detect body temperature."
There were no details or model and software features and specs described.
SARS banner from the FLIR web site and in the ITC May 2003 Newsletter
May 9 Singapore
Channel News Asia-May 9
Two different thermal scanning sytems are deployed at Changi Airport, bringing
to 29 the number of thermal imaging systems in use at Singapore's land, air and
sea checkpoints. The scanner used to screen travellers at Changi Airport is jointly
developed by Singapore's Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA), and ST
Electronics. "This system deployed at the airport does not convert infra red energy
into a temperature reading. It captures the raw IR radiation and compares it with
a preset raw IR energy level," according to Teo Chee Wah, programme manager, sensor
device used to screen ground crew and other staff, is a commercially available
radiometric thermal scanner. This is a different device with a wide temperature
measurement span from 0 to 1000 °C and may have some measuring errors at the
other systems in use are not discussed.
Press Release from
SARS Contingency Committee (Taiwan-2003/5/9) The DOH May 9th, 2003,
1. Take temperature properly
Generally, the normal range
for body temperature is between 36.5 to 37 °Celsius. Some daily activities
might cause temperature rises. For example, drinking hot water before taking
temperature will lead to higher readings on the thermometer. After taking
exercise, body temperature might rise to 37.5 or 38 °Celsius and some might
even appear symptoms similar to heat exhaustion. Tiredness, insufficient
water supply and difficulties in sweating might lead to higher temperatures.
Body temperature might change throughout the day. Usually a person's temperature
is lower in the morning and higher in the evening. After work, less pressure,
low activities of adrenalin and lower room temperature might contribute to a lower
Therefore, when you finish any outdoor activities
and come into a room, take a 5-minute rest before taking your temperature.
This will make your temperature reading more accurate. During the spread
of SARS, it is advised to take your temperature twice a day, in the morning and
See the rest of the article for more recommendations.
- A debate over the useof infrared scanners at travel sites to screen for possible
SARS cases is a hot issue in some quarters. Some health workers dispute their
use, officials are ordering units from Singapore for Toronto and at least one
study is underway to find a relationship between oral, ear and thermal imager
My temperature keeps changing!
A compact, informative dialog about how
the human body temperature changes during the day and the various reasons why
it does. Then, why a fever threshold can be reasonably established based on a
temperature reading for oral, armpit and ear temperature readings.
7 May-Kuala Lumpur
The Star web site |
About 30 new thermal imaging scanners or monitoring for
human fever conditions,will be installed by this week at bridges to Singapore
and at the airport.
May-Singapore-Channel News |
Random temperature checks are being done at two land checkpoints where
people drive in and out of Singapore (70,000 people cross daily to and from Malaysia).
Bus passengers are being screened at bus terminals with thermal scanners.
6 London-BBC News-Lancet medical journal |
Higher SARS Death Rate
New research, published on the website of The
Lancet medical journal,is a detailed study of the spread of the Sars virus in
Hong Kong. Despite
The World Health Organization's (WHO) initial estimate
of a 5% death rate from the virus. The newly reported study, based on a statistically
sound sample of 1,425 cases - puts the death rate at one in five (20%) of those
News - May7-Beijing|
China's Sars struggle
China's authorities have introduced rigorous measures to curb the virus. 30,000
Sars investigators have been deployed in the Haidian district of China's capital
Beijing. Every home in the 2.2 million people district now has a thermometer and
offices and businesses have been ordered to install temperature monitoring equipment.
April 30,2003 |
students from primary grades one to four, (aged six to nine) got their thermometers
on last Wednesday. All members of the country's armed forces were issued thermometers
and required to take their temperatures twice daily. It is expected that very
Singaporean household -- about 923,000 as of 2000 -- would get thermometers by
BC News on the Web
April 28, 2003 London |
Timeline: Sars virus to 28April
A historic look at the rise of SARS
from November 2002 to last month with highlighted events
| Rome-From Italy Online -May 2,
Minister of Health proposed to the Cabinet today a decree to measure the temperature
of all passengers on flights considered to be at risk to help prevent the spread
Singapore Local News from
Channelnews.com May 1, 2003
Two airline passengers were found as SARS-suspect
cases through thermal scanning at Changi Airport.
28, 2003 |
Thermal scanners and thermometers are among the tools being
used at airports across the Far East to screen for possible SARS cases among passengers.
Among the Items:
China is temperature checking all passengers
at major airports - Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou or Shenzhen plus issuing medical
certificates to those in the clear.
Taiwan is doing temperature checks
since April 10 at the Chiang Kai-shek Airport in Taoyuan and the Kaohsiung International
Airport Possibly 496 suspected cases have been found among 130,000.
Lumpur International Airport, plans are under way to install thermal scanners
at entry points.
The Philippines is checking all passengers for fever,
cold and sore throat.
Tokyo has installed thermal scanners at the
international airport at Narita.
Seoul has quarantine officials check
temperatures, according to the Korea Herald.
April 30, 2003
Toronto SARS warning lifted
Health Minister Anne
McLellan said new screening procedures will be implemented soon.
going to put into place two pilot projects, one at (Toronto's) Pearson and Vancouver
(airports)," she said.
Health Canada official Dr. Paul Gully said it
will take a few weeks to select infrared devices and a while longer to evaluate
like increased market for infrared thermal imagers as
depicted above and below from some of the world's suppliers.|
Daily- Bejing April 29,2003 Authorities
Monday released details of 10 epidemic control measures now in place in Beijing
to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Among these are two temperature
Enhance quarantine measures for travellers by air,
train and road.
Beijing Transportation Commission, Beijing Municipal Health Bureau, Beijing Public
Security Bureau, the North China Branch of the Civil Aviation Administration and
the Beijing Railway Bureau have organized joint inspection teams for airports,
railway stations, long-distance bus terminals and highway checkpoints in Beijing.
outbound travellers, as well as those checking in at hotels, are required to fill
health declaration forms and have their body temperature
taken. Travellers showing symptoms of fever must be sent to the health
post and suspected patients will be transferred to the designated hospitals as
soon as possible.
and universities, vocational and technical schools, primary and secondary schools,
kindergartens and nurseries in Beijing must make the health of students their
institutions must strictly implement prevention measures by
taking the temperature of students on a daily basis, disinfecting public
places such as classrooms, labs, canteens and dorms, cancelling all big lectures
are several, common types of clinical temperature sensors that can be used to
perform the tasks described. Among these are the traditional mercury-in-glass
thermometer, the newer digital electronic thermometer and the newest electronic,
infrared ear thermometer.
In addition a little known infrared thermometer has been developed and is in us
in several medical centers and sold for home use by major retailers in the USA.
It is known popularly as the forehead thermometer and was developed by Exergen
Corporation, a long time maker of industrial infrared thermometers.|
The Australian, April
passengers checked three times for SARS Temperatures taken to see if it is above
above for likely sensor details.|
From Hindustan Times-April 28, 2003: Singapore:
To prevent SARS from
spreading, the government said it would use state-of-the-art
thermal imaging scanners at its border with Malaysia and at the city-state's
airport to screen people for signs of the disease.
Passengers who show up
on the camera screen as "hot bodies," or with a
temperature greater than 37.5 °C (99.5°F), will be pulled
aside for further health checks.
"There will now be 100 percent screening
for all (outbound) passengers from SARS-affected areas, including Singapore,"
said Transport Minister Yeo Cheow Tong. Screening for all passengers arriving
from SARS-hit countries has already begun.
The credit for
the initial thermal scanners was given to Singapore Technologies organization,
a systems company with many military specialties.
likely the thermal imagers are used in a relative mode to detect those who appear
significantly hotter, about 0.5 Degree C than the average person.
Most likely the infrared
ear thermometer type sensor is being used on screened candidates, since it
is quick and generally quite accurate. Some models of ear therometers can repeat
to within 0.2°C.
Pacific Airlines Website|
SARS Screening Procedures at Airports (revised
and current as of Monday, 28 April 2003)
The information on this page
is provided at our best knowledge to be accurate and correct at the time of publication.
As the SARS condition evolves, so will the information change rapidly.
Please note that
Cathay Pacific states they will not carry a passenger with a
fever of 37.5°C or above on any of their flights regardless of local government
details of regulations now in force at many of Cathy Pacific's destinations are
described in some detail. Only one location has a temperature sensor specified
by name or type. That is Taipei - TPE (Taiwan), where an ear thermomter is mentioned.|
News Asia |
SARS spurs need for Indian digital thermometers in Singapore-50,000
fever thermometers are very common and very precise, however they require about
a 60 second contact with the body to register accurately. The actual temperature
sensor used in most digital fever thermometers is a thermistor.|
Straits Times Online-JOHOR BARU, April 23: |
The 125 lorry drivers who
transported vegetables and fruitsin Singapore will be quarantined in their homes
for 10 days. "..... Johor Health director said district health officials had been
alerted to help trace the lorry drivers to serve them the quarantine order. He
said each family would be given a thermometer to check their
temperatures daily. Health officials will also visit them daily to check
on them. "They will be told to immediately contact the nearest hospital if
their temperature goes beyond 38 degrees Celcius. In such instances, we
will send an ambulance to take them to hospital.""
could be any type of fever thermometer, the type was not specified in the article.|
Hong Kong April 24, 2003 |
Thermal imaging machines to record body temperature
at boundary crossing
Kong and Shenzhen officials agreed to enhance co-operation to more effectively
control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
1. Shenzhen and Hong Kong each will install 15 infrared thermal imaging machines
2. Each side will screen incoming passengers.
By mid-May, each will have installed a further 200 infrared thermal imaging machines
to check the temperature of incoming passengers.
is highly unlikely that this use of thermal imaging
scanners is very accurate to measure body temperature but it can be capable of
detecting those who appear significantly hotter, about 0.5 degree C or more, than
the average person.|
net.com April 24-Hong Kong|
News on IR thermometers
in Hong Kong & China to detect/screen travelers against SARS.
Health & Science News April 21, 2003|
SARS temperature scanner
Computer display shows passengers going past
a new Infrared Fever Sensing System camera to help screen people with fevers.
Thermal imaging sensor technologies unobtrusively measures the temperatures of
copyrighted thermal image is shown on the linked web page. Specs uncertain.|