Thermocouple App Notes Series, 1 of 4 – Thermocouple Fundamentals

App notes on how TCs work & their calibration

Thermocouple App notesOnline — Thermocouples are broadly used in many industrial and scientific applications. But it can be a bit tricky to understand how they work and how to calibrate them.

Fluke Calibration has developed a thermocouple application note series created by temperature calibration experts to help you learn what you need to know.

The series covers how thermocouples work, choosing calibration equipment, calculating uncertainties, and how to calibrate thermocouples.

There are four application notes in the series:

Visit the webpage at Fluke calibration where you may download the app notes directly:

Calibration and Metrology training Webinars

Calibration and Metrology training Webinars by Fluke CalibrationCalibration and metrology training webinars are free and offer real-world expertise and practical tips about electrical, flow, pressure, RF and temperature calibration and metrology.

New webinars are added monthly.

If you would like to be the first to know about new seminars, sign up for Fluke Calibration’s metrology and calibration training webinar alerts.

If you can’t find the topic you seek, they may have already covered it.

View their list of 90+ on-demand calibration and metrology training webinars to find out.

A calibration bath primer

Courtesy of FLUKE Corporation

FLUKE Calibration Bath

I’m a big fan of calibration baths.

When I managed our temperature calibration laboratory, I relied on them.

With a series of baths and a liquid nitrogen comparator, we were able to perform a large volume of accredited temperature calibrations with lower uncertainties from -197 °C to 500 °C than would have been possible in any other way.

By Ron Ainsworth from FLUKE Calibration.

Read the Fluke Calibraion Bath Primer online

Ron Ainsworth is the Business Manager for Process Calibration Tools at Fluke Calibration. After graduating with a degree in physics in 1998, he started in the primary temperature calibration laboratory in American Fork Utah.

“Temperature units and temperature unit conversion”

A Useful Blog Post From

small temp scale image from Beamex
Beamex Image: click to view larger version. Reproduced with permission

Online — Beamex have also developed a Temperature Unit Converter and have placed it on their web site,

Click the link below to visit it:

The page covers most of the same topics that we do here, but with a slightly different perspective, especially the topic of the the Reamur temperature scale.

The topics covered are:

  • What is temperature?
  • International temperature scales
  • Temperature Units
  • Conversions between temperature units
  • Beamex temperature calibration products

Beamex’s business is calibration.

Since technology continues to rapidly progress, companies need to be more efficient with less resources. At the same time, new regulations put constant pressure on manufacturing operations to maintain a high level of plant safety and product quality. With these in mind, we are here to help our customers to find a better way.


Beamex Oy Ab
Ristisuonraitti 10
FIN-68600 Pietarsaari

Phone: +358 10 550 5000
E-mail: info[at]


Jarmo Hyvärinen
Phone: +358 40 5736520

Arja Lehto
Phone: +358 50 3842226

Email: myynti[at]


Beamex S.A.S.
253 Boulevard de Leeds
59777 Lille

Phone: +33 (0)3 28 53 58 27

Beamex Limited
Unit 1, Interchange 21
Centre Court
Leicestershire    LE19 1WR

Phone: 01455 821 920

Beamex, Inc.
2152 Northwest Parkway
Suite A
Marietta, GA 30067

Phone: +1 (800) 888-9892,
+1 (770) 951-1927


Beamex Oy Ab Shanghai Representative Office
Rm 401, #2 Bldg, 690 Bi Bo Road
Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park
Shanghai 201203

Phone: (86-21) 6104 2292
Mobile: (86) 1380 1992 162
E-mail: yan.hao[at]

Beamex Oy Ab India Liaison Office
Stylus Serviced Offices, R-Tech Park
13th Floor, Building 2
Off. Western Express Highway
Goregaon East, Mumbai – 400 063

Phone: +91 (0)98 33102694
Fax: +358 10 5505404
E-mail: rajesh.panchal[at]

Beamex Oy Ab – Abu Dhabi
Al Odaid Office Tower, 10th Floor
Airport Road, P.O. Box 128 161
Abu Dhabi

Tel: +971 2 414 6666
E-mail: mark.slater[at]

Beamex Oy Ab Technical & Scientific Office
Novotel Business Park
6140 Dammam 32232

Tel: +966 54 3213282
E-mail: tariq.jafar[at]


A product with a unique advantage

EE33 sensor tube - thermal image
EE33 sensor tube – thermal image

Air humidity and temperature play an important role in meteorology. Highly accurate measurements of these climate parameters form the basis of accurate forecasts and meaningful records.

The E+E Elektronik Model EE33 series humidity and temperature sensor is the only one on the market with a double-heated probe. Both the sensor tube and the sensor element are heated.

An application note, free for download from their website, tells the rest of the story.

You can download it be clicking here.

If that does not work, as sometimes happens when organizations “refine” their websites, we have archived a copy in our database; it may be downloaded here: Humidity_measurement_meteorology

Related technical webpages & download from E+E Elektronik:

E+E Elektronik – the Sensor specialist for humidity sensors, CO2 sensors, moisture in oil, dew point, air velocity, flow and temperature sensors. As a specialist for sensors E+E Elektronik produces humidity sensorsCO2 sensorsflow sensors, transmitters, hand-held meters and  dataloggers for the measurement of relative humiditymoisture in oildewpoint,
air velocityflowCO2 and temperature. E+E also operates a nationally accredited calibration lab and is appointed to maintain the “National Standard for Humidity and Air Flow Speed in Austria”

World HQ

E+E Elektronik Ges.m.b.H.
Langwiesen 7
A-4209 Engerwitzdorf

Tel: +43 (0)7235 605-0
Fax: +43 (0)7235 605-8


E+E Elektronik Corp.
124 Grove Street
Franklin, MA 02038
United States

Tel: +1 508 530 3068
Fax: +1 508 346 3798

Temperature Calibration & Metrology Web Seminar Archives

Fluke Calibration’s Focus on Basics – RTDs – Digital & IR (Infrared Radiation) Thermometers

Calibration and Metrology Web Seminar Series

Online —  Fluke Calibration’s free online web seminars cover a wide range of calibration and temperature topics. More are scheduled monthly. To learn about upcoming events, check their web seminar page, or sign up for their e-news bulletins today.

If you have missed out on one of their live web seminar events, you can view the recordings in their web seminar archives. Here’s a list of current ones along with links to them (as of 1 August 2013). They are mostly in English, but several are also in Spanish.

Introduction to Temperature Measurement and Calibration

Techniques and Common Methods of Temperature Calibration

How Do You Know that Your Digital Thermometer is Accurate? »

How to Create a Temperature Measurement Uncertainty Budget »

Replacing Mercury Thermometers  Once and for All »

Kelvin and SI Units »

Redefinition of SI Units (Kelvin, Kilogram,  Ampere & Mole) »

How to Calibrate an RTD or Platinum Resistance Thermometer »

Cómo Calibrar un RTD »

How to Calibrate an RTD Using a Dryblock Calibrator »

Cómo Calibrar un RTD Usando un Calibrador de Bloque Seco »

Overcoming Drift: A Complete Guide to Maintaining Your PRTs »

Annealing an RTD: Why, When and How »

How to Maximize SPRT Measurement Performance »

Understanding Uncertainties Associated with Dryblock Calibrators »

How to Calibrate an IR Thermometer »

Como Calibrar Termómetros Infrarrojos »

Infrared Temperature Calibration 101 »

Advancements in Digital Thermometry Bridge Technology »

What is 0.06 PPM, Can Calibrate itself, and  costs much less that a bridge? »

Best Practices in Maintaining Temperature Calibration Equipment »

Making Laboratory Accreditation Work for You »

Thermocouple calibration at NPL – Supply of cobalt-carbon eutectic fixed point

For calibration of thermocouples (1324 °C)

Melting point cell
Melting point cell

Teddington, UK — The UK’s National Physical Laboratory (NPL) now offers for sale the novel cobalt-carbon eutectic fixed point for thermocouple calibration with ultra-low uncertainties at 1324 °C.

The melting point cell consists of a high purity graphite crucible containing an ingot of cobalt-carbon alloy constructed from cobalt and carbon each having a purity of at least 99.999%.

The cells are supplied with an NPL certificate showing the melting temperature (uncertainty ± 0.55 °C, k = 2) of the cell determined, traceable to ITS-90, by radiation thermometry.

For more information visit the NPL webpage at:

National Physical Laboratory
Hampton Road
Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW

Tel: 020 8977 3222
Related NPL Resources: Thermocouple calibration – calibration and supply of platinum-rhodium thermocouples (0 °C to 1600 °C)