Thermistor Calibration for High Accuracy Measurements

thermistors as shown on ebay photoTechnicians and engineers often use thermistors to measure temperature in applications which require high accuracy. Thermistors operate by changing resistance as their temperature changes in a very predictable but non-linear way.

This characteristic allows them to provide higher accuracy than thermocouples or RTD’s. In order to ensure this high accuracy, thermistor calibration is an important consideration.

One challenge when using thermistors is calculating the temperature from the measured resistance value. To accomplish this, the Steinhart–Hart equation is used to convert a thermistor sensor’s resistance to temperature.

See the following project page on sourceforge to learn much more:

http://thermistor.sourceforge.net/.

it begins:

1 Abstract

The project offers support for NTC thermistor calculations. The Steinhart-Hart equation is a mathematical model for these thermistors that seems to fit for a wide range of temperatures with high precision. Software to calculate the characteristic Steinhart-Hart coefficients based on temperature-resistance tables for given thermistors as well as functions allowing conversion of temperature values to resistance and vice versa is provided.

2 Description

A model for the resistivity of a semiconductor as a function of the temperature was found by Steinhart and Hart 1968 ([1]). The Steinhart-Hart law describes the absolute temperature T (in Kelvins) as a function of the NTC thermistor’s resistivity (in Ω) according to the formula

Steinhart-Hart polynom
1/T = a0 + a1 · ln r + a3 · (ln r)3

The constants a0, a1 and a3, also called Steinhart-Hart coefficients, vary depending on the type of thermistor. To support developer when creating temperature measurement applications, thermistor manufacturer often supply these constants for their products. They also publicate tables where resistivity of thermistor products for a wider range of temperature values are listed.

This project provides software to

  • calculate temperature value for a given resistance of an NTC thermistor with given Steinhart-Hart coefficients,
  • calculate resistance value for a given temperature for an NTC thermistor with given Steinhart-Hart coefficients and
  • evaluate Steinhart-Hart coefficients for an NTC thermistor descibed by a temperature-resistance table.

Apart from the standard Steinhart-Hart equation other forms have been found. For application with lower CPU power a simplified form of the Steinhart-Hart equation can be used.

Simplified Steinhart-Hart polynom
1T = a0 + a1 · ln r

On the other hand a quadratic term can be inserted into the formula to increase accuracy giving the extended Steinhart-Hart equation

Extended Steinhart-Hart polynom
1/T = a0 + a1 · ln r + a2· (ln r)2 + a3 · (ln r)3

An introduction to thermistors and the Steinhart-Hart polynom can be found at Wikipedia [2].

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steinhart–Hart_equation.

When compared against other methods, Steinhart-Hart models will give you much more precise readings across the sensors’ temperature ranges, often within a few hundredths of a degree.

Although the Steinhart-Hart equation is not universally known, it is useful in data logging applications such as measuring lake water temperatures, solar hot water systems, and skin temperature measurement.

Many high quality data loggers such as the dataTaker DT8x, Grant SQ20xx and VersaLog VL-TH allow you to enter the coefficients to automatically derive temperature from measured thermistor resistance. As part of our free tech support, we at CAS DataLoggers often provide help in this area for customers who call in asking how to perform the conversion.

Thermistor manufacturers don’t always provide users with Steinhart–Hart coefficients for their sensors; they may simply provide resistance versus temperature tables. In the case of a manufacturer-provided table, it’s not immediately obvious how to derive the necessary coefficients. Or, the user may want to perform self-validation of thermistors by measuring the resistance at several known temperature points and use this data to derive the Steinhart-hart coefficients.

To speed up the process, there are several Steinhart-Hart calculators online which allow you to enter the temperature and resistance values and then generate the coefficients.

You’ll find a link to our own online calculator, along with an example table, at the end of this article.

NTC Thermistors Steinhart and Hart Equation
The Steinhart and Hart Equation is an empirical expression that has been determined to be the best mathematical expression for resistance temperature relationship of NTC thermistors and NTC probe assemblies.

https://www.ametherm.com/thermistor/ntc-thermistors-steinhart-and-hart-equation

Deriving Steinhart-Hart Coefficients for Thermistor Calibration:

In cases where the Steinhart–Hart coefficients are not provided by your thermistor manufacturer or if you are doing thermistor calibration, you can derive them yourself. First, you’ll need three accurate resistance values (either from a table or measured) at three known temperatures and then insert them into the formula to derive the A, B and C coefficients.

The Steinhart-Hart equation is commonly defined as:

thermistor calibration

where:

  • T is the temperature (given in kelvins)
  • R  is the resistance at T (given in ohms)
  • A, B, and C are the Steinhart–Hart Coefficients which differ according to your thermistor model/type and its particular temperature range
  • Ln is the natural logarithm

The equation is sometimes presented as containing a term, but this results in a lesser value than the other coefficients and is therefore not as useful for obtaining higher sensor accuracy.

To find the Steinhart–Hart coefficients, you need to know at least three operating points. For this, we use three values of resistance data for three known temperatures.

thermistor calibration

Steinhart-Hart Temperature Calculator

Thermistor resistance is  related to temperature in degrees Kelvin by the following formula:

1/T= A + B*ln(R/Rt) + C*ln(R/Rt)2 + D*ln(R/Rt)3

In the standard Steinhart-Hart equation the C parameter is set to zero.  However, some manufacturers use all 4 coefficients.  In the calculator below, you can specify whether to use this term or not, by just setting it to zero. 

Subtract 273.15 to convert Kelvin to Celsius. 

It’s wise to do a quick sanity check by putting in the coefficients and the same value for Rt and R.  If the result isn’t 25 C then there is a problem with the coefficients. 

http://www.daycounter.com/Calculators/Steinhart-Hart-Thermistor-Calculator.phtml

Steinhart-Hart Calculator – The Steinhart–Hart equation is a model of the resistance of a semiconductor at different temperatures.
Steinhart Equation

    where:
  • T is the temperature (in Kelvin)
  • R is the resistance at T (in ohms)
  • A, B, and C are the Steinhart-Hart coefficients which vary depending on the type and model of thermistor and the temperature range of interest. (The most general form of the applied equation contains a (ln(R))2 term, but this is frequently neglected because it is typically much smaller than the other coefficients, and is therefore not shown above.)

https://www.thermistor.com/calculators

 

Summary for Policymakers of IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5ºC

Plus a downloadable copy here

SR15 IPCC Report CoverINCHEON, Republic of Korea, —  Limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society, the IPCC said in a new assessment.
With clear benefits to people and natural ecosystems, limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC compared to 2 ºC could go hand in hand with ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said on Monday last week.
The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC was approved by the IPCC on Saturday in Incheon, Republic of Korea.
It will be a key scientific input into the Katowice Climate Change Conference in Poland in December, when governments review the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change.
“With more than 6,000 scientific references cited and the dedicated contribution of thousands of expert and government reviewers worldwide, this important report testifies to the breadth and policy relevance of the IPCC,” said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC.
Ninety-one authors and review editors from 40 countries prepared the IPCC report in response to an invitation from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) when it adopted the Paris Agreement in 2015.
The report’s full name is: Global Warming of 1.5°C, an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways,in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.
“One of the key messages that comes out very strongly from this report is that we are already seeing the consequences of 1 °C of global warming through more extreme weather, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice, among other changes,” said Panmao Zhai, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I.
The report highlights a number of climate change impacts that could be avoided by limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC compared to 2 ºC, or more.
For instance, by 2100, global sea level rise would be 10 cm lower with global warming of 1.5 °C compared with 2°C.
The likelihood of an Arctic Ocean free of sea ice in summer would be once per century with global warming of 1.5 °C, compared with at least once per decade with 2 °C.
Coral reefs would decline by 70-90 percent with global warming of 1.5 °C, whereas virtually all (> 99 percent) would be lost with 2 ºC.
“Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5 ºC or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems,” said Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.
Limiting global warming would also give people and ecosystems more room to adapt and remain below relevant risk thresholds, added Pörtner. The report also examines pathways available to limit warming to 1.5 ºC, what it would take to achieve them and what the consequences could be.
“The good news is that some of the kinds of actions that would be needed to limit global warming to 1.5 ºC are already underway around the world,but they would need to accelerate,” said Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of Working Group I.
The report finds that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require “rapid and far-reaching” transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities. Global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would need to fall by about 45 percentfrom 2010 levels by 2030, reaching ‘net zero’ around 2050. This means that any remaining emissions would need to be balanced by removing CO2 from the air.
“Limiting warming to 1.5 ºC is possible within the laws of chemistry and physics but doing so would require unprecedented changes,” said Jim Skea, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III.
Allowing the global temperature to temporarily exceed or ‘overshoot’ 1.5 ºC would mean a greater reliance on techniques that remove CO2
from the air to return global temperature to below 1.5 ºC by 2100.
The effectiveness of such techniques are unproven at large scale and some may carrysignificant risks for sustainable development, the report notes.
“Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C compared with 2 °C would reduce challenging impacts on ecosystems, human health and well-being, making it easier to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals,” said Priyardarshi Shukla, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group  III.
The decisions we make today are critical in ensuring a safe and sustainable world for everyone, both now and in the future, said Debra Roberts, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.
“This report gives policymakers and practitioners the information they need to make decisions that tackle climate change while considering local context and people’s needs. The next few years are probably the most important in our history,” she said.
The IPCC is the leading world body for assessing the science related to climate change, its impactsand potential future risks, and possible response options.
The report was prepared under the scientific leadership of all three IPCC working groups.
  • WorkingGroup I assesses the physical science basis of climate change;
  • Working Group II addresses impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and
  • Working Group III deals with the mitigation of climate change.
The Paris Agreement adopted by 195 nations at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 included the aim
of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change by “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.”
As part of the decision to adopt the Paris Agreement, the IPCC was invited to produce, in 2018, a Special Report on global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. The IPCC accepted the invitation, adding that the Special
Report would look at these issues in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.
Global Warming of 1.5 ºC is the first in a series of Special Reports to be produced in the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Cycle. Next year the IPCC will release the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, and Climate Change and Land, which looks at how climate change affects land use.
The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) presents the key findings of the Special Report, based on the assessment of the available scientific, technical and socio-economic literature relevant to global warming of 1.5 °C.
The Summary for Policymakers of the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC (SR15) is available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/
Key statistics of the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC
– 91 authors from 44 citizenships and 40 countries of residence;
– 14 Coordinating Lead Authors (CLAs);
– 60 Lead authors (LAs);
– 17 Review Editors (REs);
– 133 Contributing authors (CAs);
– Over 6,000 cited references;
– A total of 42,001 expert and government review comments.
(First Order Draft 12,895; Second Order Draft 25,476; Final Government Draft: 3,630)
For more information, contact:
IPCC Press Office,
Email:ipcc-media@wmo.int
Werani Zabula +41 79 108 3157 or Nina Peeva +41 79 516 7068

Below are the links to the details about each aspect of the report:

GISS Surface Temperature of Earth (GISTEMP)

An Extract from The NASA GISTEMP Webpage

GISTEMP Figures
Image Courtesy NASA GISS

The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) is an estimate of global surface temperature change.

Graphs and tables are updated around the middle of every month using current data files from NOAA GHCN v3 (meteorological stations), ERSST v5 (ocean areas), and SCAR (Antarctic stations), combined as described in our December 2010 publication (Hansen et al. 2010).

These updated files incorporate reports for the previous month and also late reports and corrections for earlier months.

News and Updates

See the GISTEMP News page for a list of announcements and NASA articles related to the GISTEMP analysis.

See the Updates to Analysis page for detailed update information.

Contacts

Before contacting us, please check if your question about the GISTEMP analysis is already answered in the FAQ.

If the FAQ does not answer your question, please address your inquiry to Dr. Reto Ruedy.

Other researchers participating in the GISTEMP analysis are Avi Persin, Dr. Makiko Sato, and Dr. Ken Lo. This research was initiated by Dr. James E. Hansen, now retired. It is currently led by Dr. Gavin Schmidt.

Citation

When referencing the GISTEMP data provided here, please cite both this webpage and also our most recent scholarly publication about the data. In citing the webpage, be sure to include the date of access.

Background of the GISS Analysis

The basic GISS temperature analysis scheme was defined in the late 1970s by James Hansen when a method of estimating global temperature change was needed for comparison with one-dimensional global climate models. The scheme was based on the finding that the correlation of temperature change was reasonably strong for stations separated by up to 1200 km, especially at middle and high latitudes. This fact proved sufficient to obtain useful estimates for global mean temperature changes.

Temperature analyses were carried out prior to 1980, notably those of Murray Mitchell, but most covered only 20-90°N latitudes. Our first published results (Hansen et al. 1981) showed that, contrary to impressions from northern latitudes, global cooling after 1940 was small, and there was net global warming of about 0.4 °C between the 1880s and 1970s.

The early analysis scheme went through a series of enhancements that are listed and illustrated on the History Page.

See the rest of this, in-depth NASA webpage and more starting at: https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/.

About GISS

The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of National Aeronautics and Space Administration‘s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The ESD is part of GSFC’s Sciences and Exploration Directorate.

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
2880 Broadway
New York, NY 10025 USA

General inquiries about the scientific programs at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies may be directed to the Goddard Space Flight Center Public Affairs office at 1-301-286-8955.

https://www.giss.nasa.gov

Sea Surface Temperature (SST) | NOAA Resources

Online — Satellite SST is the longest and most mature application of ocean remote sensing. Passive observations are made with infrared (IR) sensors onboard multiple polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms, and microwave sensors onboard polar platforms.

The IR sensors have higher spatial (1-4 km) and temporal (10-15 min, onboard geostationary satellites) resolution, and superior radiometric performance.

However, IR sensors cannot “see through cloud”, thus typically limiting retrievals to ~20% of the global ocean, whereas microwave sensors may see through clouds (except heavily precipitating) and therefore have higher coverage, but have coarser spatial resolution (~20-50 km) and radiometric performance, cannot be used in coastal and marginal ice zone areas, and may be subject to other errors (due to e.g. radio frequency interference, RFI)

NOAA produces several L2 (Level 2) (original swath), L3 (gridded), and L4 (gap-free analysis) SST products in international Group for High-Resolution SST (GHRSST) Data Specifications version 2 (GDS2) and makes them available from NOAA CoastWatch:

Reference web page at NOAA: https://coastwatch.noaa.gov/cw_html/sst.html

ISA Webinar Recording: Temperature Measurement and Control

By Greg McMillan 1 Hour & 35 Minutes+

 

This educational ISA webinar on control valves was presented by Greg McMillan in conjunction with the ISA Mentor Program.

Greg is an industry consultant, author of numerous process control books, 2010 ISA Life Achievement Award recipient and retired Senior Fellow from Solutia Inc. (now Eastman Chemical).

The ISA Mentor Program enables young professionals to access the wisdom and expertise of seasoned ISA members, and offers veteran ISA professionals the chance to share their wisdom and make a difference in someone’s career.

Click this link to learn more about how you can join the ISA Mentor Program.

This video is freely available online at YouTube.com using the following link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJY96uJLWow

Radiation thermometry: The measurement problem

Classic article by G. D. (Gene) Nutter from a NASA ARCHIVE et.al.

ASTM STP895 Cover
ASTM STP895 Cover (Image credit ASTM International)

This online article is very similar and covers most of the same materials as  “Radiation Thermometry — The Measurement Problem” delivered at a symposium sponsored by ASTM Committee E-20 on Temperature Measurement in cooperation with the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD on May 8, 1984.

This was subsequently published as the first chapter in the volume “Applications of Radiation Thermometry”, ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION 895, J.C. Richmond, National Bureau of Standards and D.P. DeWitt, editors.

 

Radiation Thermometry—The Measurement Problem
Symposium Paper

January 1985 — STP895  STP38703S
The basic measurement problems of radiation thermometry are discussed, with emphasis on the physical processes giving rise to the emissivity effects observed in real materials. Emissivity is shown to derive from bulk absorptivity properties of the material. Blackbody radiation is produced within an opaque isothermal material, with partial internal reflection occurring at the surface.

Buy PDF

Gene Nutter wrote this and many other  technical articles on the subject of radiation thermometry, including another classic , “A High Precision Automatic Optical Pyrometer in Temperatures ITS measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 4, 519-530, Instrument Society of America (1972).

Description: “An overview of the theory and techniques of radiometric thermometry is presented. The characteristics of thermal radiators (targets) are discussed along with surface roughness and oxidation effects, fresnel reflection and subsurface effects in dielectrics.

“The effects of the optical medium between the radiating target and the radiation thermometer are characterized including atmospheric effects, ambient temperature and dust environment effects and the influence of measurement windows.

“The optical and photodetection components of radiation thermometers are described and techniques for the correction of emissivity effects are addressed.”

NASA Info:Link to article: https://archive.org/details/NASA_NTRS_Archive_19880014512

Publication date 1988-03-01
Topics NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INFRARED RADIOMETERS, RADIATION PYROMETERS, TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT, THERMOMETERS, BLACK BODY RADIATION, RADIANCE, SPACE COMMERCIALIZATION, SURFACE ROUGHNESS, THERMAL EMISSION, Nutter, G. D.,
Collection NASA_NTRS_Archive; additional_collections
Language English
Identifier NASA_NTRS_Archive_19880014512
Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t9h46mr2v
Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0
Pages 61

Ed Note (from the book jacket of the 1988 book “Theory and Practice of Radiation Thermometry”,  Edited by D.P. Dewitt and Gene D. Nutter, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): “Gene D. Nutter is (was)  a senior staff member of the Instrumentation Center, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He received his MS in Physics from  University of Nebraska and had been earlier associated with the National Bureau of Standards and Atomics International.”

Chapter 5 in the above referenced text is linked below below. a classic book on the theory & practices of radiation thermometry published in 1998. It was recently found on Amazon.com and ebay.com at the following links:

https://www.amazon.com/dp/0471610186/ref=rdr_ext_tmb FOR ABOUT $349.

AND for between $353 and $453 on ebay at:  https://www.ebay.com/sch/i.html?_from=R40&_trksid=p2380057.m570.l1313.TR0.TRC0.H0.Xtheory+%26+practice+of+radiation+thermometry.TRS0&_nkw=theory+%26+practice+of+radiation+thermometry&_sacat=0

 

Glossaries

There are many specialized glossaries that cover the terms describing the unique details of temperature and moisture sensors and their uses and this page represents an attempt to index most of them and related topics, such as Meteorology, in one place.

CONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS:

Thermistors: https://www.temperatures.com/blog/2018/04/04/thermistor-gloss…-and-terminology/.

Thermocouples:

RTDS: 

NONCONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS:

Many online articles about radiation thermometry and its uses (infrared thermometers, radiation pyrometers) exist including technology articles, PowerPoint slide presentations and .pdf downloads, but they seem to be vanishing as more and more “big businesses” take over these specialized sensors.But few are aimed at being useful glossaries or definition of terms.

There are some exceptions and some well-crafted pieces that have been online for a while and can be found in semi-hidden corners of the Web.

Thermal Radiation Thermometers: temperature_measurement_radiation_thermometers

Thermal Imaging:  (Glossary of Basic Thermography Terms) http://www.ne-spintech.com/Glossary%20of%20Basic%20Thermography%20Terms.pdf .

Meteorology

American Meteorological Society’s (AMS) Glossary of Meteorology

The electronic version of the second edition of the AMS Glossary of Meteorology is a living document and meant to be periodically updated as terms in the field evolve. To that end, AMS has established a Chief Editor for the Glossary who is responsible for updating/revising existing terms and adding new terms. Learn more about the Glossary and current Editorial Board.

For recommendations on correctly citing and referencing the Glossary of Meteorology, please see the Glossary entry for Citation.

If you have any feedback or editing suggestions to the content in this Glossary, please contact the Chief Editor.

Glossary – NOAA’s National Weather Service

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the NWS. Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years and before many NWS products were directly available to the public.

Glossary of Weather, Climate and Ocean 2nd Edition

ISBN: 9781935704799

Intended for educators, students and the public and inspired by increasingly interest in the atmosphere, ocean and our changing climate, this glossary provides an understandable, up-to-date reference for terms frequently used in discussions or descriptions of meteorological, oceanographic and climatological phenomena. In addition, the glossary includes definitions of related hydrologic terms.

Clearly this page is a work in progress, and it may be expanded in time. Priority will be according to the response it garners.

Thermography Service Providers

Below is a list of some Thermal Imaging Services or Directories where more lists can be found. It is not complete, we know.

Sorry if you were left out. If you should be listed or know of others who should be listed or if you want to improve your organization’s listing, let us know, please.

Note that the training organizations are listed on a separate page. Some of them provide classified ads for used equipment as do some of the service providers below.

Also, some of the training companies do other things, like practice thermography and run information exchange/training meetings at nice places in the Fall and Winter, like Orlando, New Orleans and Las Vegas.

Tell your new product and application stories at The Temperature Directories website: www.tempsensor.net or feedback to us and we’ll consider adding it here with your byline!

 

  1. AITscan(USA)
    A unique inspection service that has developed a high-tech approach to aerial infrared thermographic scans for large, flat-roofed buildings as well as locating Stormwater pollution sources and more. A most visually and technically rewarding website.
  2. Allis Engineering San Juan Capistrano, CA
  3. Chemical & Infrared INSPECTIONS, LLC (USA)
    Professional Services Assisting Industrial, Commercial and Residential Customers locate potential problems through Infrared Thermography and Structural Drug Detection
  4. Colbert Infrared Services, Inc. (USA)
    All of their Infrared Thermographers have completed the ASNT (American society of Non-destructive Testing) requirements for certified Thermographers, are members of the Professional Thermographers Association, and have had extensive training as Certified Thermal Trend Professional Solution Providers. The latter is their own software that they developed, sell and support for data collection, and fault-finding.
  5. Emerson Process Management/CSI (USA)
    Reliability Based Maintenance: vibration, tribology, oil lab services, motor monitoring, ir thermography, laser alignment, dynamic balancing, and RBM Services.
  6. The Infrared Training Center
    Provides a directory of IR service provider organizations (and much more) on their web site.
  7. Infrared Inspection’s   Lists of Service Providers:
  8. InfraredPredictive Surveys, Inc. (USA)
    A Maryland Corporation is “The Total Inspection and Survey Service for Architects, Owners and Industry”, that performs infrared inspections of electrical systems, ovens, bearings, gears, condensers, heat exchangers, belt drives, chain drives, refractory insulation, valves, hydraulic systems, pumps, tanks and electrical equipment and more.
  9. Infrared Services, Inc.(USA)
    A Colorado Corporation that has been doing electrical, distribution, power system, uninterrupted power systems, mechanical systems, rotating equipment, roof moisture, energy audits, glycol snow melt systems, plumbing leak detection and other nondestructive surveys for over 9 years.
  10. IRInfo’s Thermal Imaging Service List for Canada
  11. IRInfo’s Thermal Imaging Service List for Israel
  12. IRInfo’s Thermal Imaging Service List for Mexico
  13. IRInfo’s Thermal Imaging Service List for Trinidad
  14. IRInfo’s Thermal Imaging Service List for The USA-by State
  15. Jersey Infrared Consultants(USA)
    Focused on process and predictive maintenance, JerseyIR is known throughout the USA for its expertise in petroleum thermal cracking and petrochemical thermal reformer furnaces-Headquartered in Burlington New Jersey, near Philadelphia PA.
  16. Kleinfeld Technical Services, Inc. . Bronx, New York (USA).
    A unique company with IR Thermography, heat transfer analysis, process engineering and FEA consulting services run by Jack Kleinfeld, P.E., a graduate chemical engineer.
  17. Maintenance Reliability Group, Another unique organization, one aimed at the big picture of reliability in maintenance operations-with a strong thermography component. Run by Rich Wurzbach in south central Pennsylvania.
  18. PIRS – Pregowski Infrared Services (Poland)
    Twój przewodnik do sukcesu w zastosowaniu detekcji w podczerwieni (Your guide to success in application of infrared detection).
  19. Si Termografia Infraroja . Bueneos Aires, (Argentina),
    Services, consulting and products for infrared thermal imaging from Sr. Andrés E. Rozlosnik.
  20. Sierra Pacific Innovations(USA)
    SPI infrared thermography services thermal imaging infrared inspections. They have, according to their web site, the largest selection on the internet of new, demo, and previously owned imagers. 251 Waterton Lakes Avenue, Las Vegas, NV 89148.
  21. Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc.(USA)
    A major service company located in North Carolina. Stockton is dedicated to providing a wide range of quality infrared thermographic services to their clients. They do not manufacture or represent products of any kind and do not provide any services other than infrared. Their site features images, videos and a great deal of information on applications. Stockton is divided into four seperate divisions and provide the following services:
  • The Aerial Infrared Thermography at Stockton is performed by its AITscan Division: Stormwater and other unplanned and illicit water discharges into Waterways and Lakes can be found more quickly at much lower cost than shoeleather surveys with AITscan’s PollutionFindIR™ Services
  • Aerial Roof Moisture Surveying with RoofMoistureFindIR™ Services
  • Steam System Surveying with SteamLeakFinderIR™
  • Hot Water System Surveying with HotwaterLeakFinderIR™
  • Environmental Impact and Animal Counts with *AnimalFindIR Services
  • ELECTRICAL/MECHANICAL PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE DIVISION * Electrical Switchgear IR/PM * Mechanical Systems IR/PM * Steam System Infrared *
  • BUILDING QUALITY ASSURANCE DIVISION * Building Structural Integrity * Heat Loss Analysis *
  • PROCESS IMPROVEMENT/R&D DIVISION * Process Improvement * On-line feasibility studies * Unbiased IR camera selection consulting * Pulp & Paper Industry Infrared * Infrared Research & Development
  • Snell Infrared(USA & Canada)
    A major thermal imaging service and training company
  • Snell Infrared’s List of Service Providers
  • Thermal Inspection Services,Allentown, PA(USA)
    Electrical, Mechanical, Roofing, Building Energy Audits, Production Process Evaluations
  • Therma Scan,(USA)
    An experienced industrial team of thermographers from the Northern Penninsula of Michigan (The U. P.)serving industry and commerce.
  • Thermal Vision (Ireland)
    State of art thermography service based near Dublin. Providing quality thermal imaging solutions worldwide.

About The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) & More!

GCOS-aboutOnline — GCOS, the Global Climate Observing System, is a joint undertaking of:

  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO),
  • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and
  • The International Council for Science (ICSU).

 

Its goal is to provide comprehensive information on the total climate system, involving a multidisciplinary range of physical, chemical and biological properties, and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, cryospheric and terrestrial processes.

It is built on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS), the IOC-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-UNEP-UNESCO-ICSU Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) and a number of other domain-based and cross-domain research and operational observing systems.

It includes both in situ and remote sensing components, with its space based components coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS).

GCOS is intended to meet the full range of national and international requirements for climate and climate-related observations.

As a system of climate-relevant observing systems, it constitutes, in aggregate, the climate observing component of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

The Global Observing System is an extremely complex undertaking, and perhaps one of the most ambitious and successful instances of international collaboration of the last 100 years. It consists of a multitude of individual observing systems owned and operated by a plethora of national and international agencies with different funding lines, allegiances, overall priorities and management processes.

Learn more at: https://library.wmo.int/opac/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3417 ,  http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=AboutGCOS  and https://public.wmo.int/en/programmes.

 

Understanding Radiation Thermometry Parts I & II

From NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From NASA Article
From NASA Article

In 2015, Timothy K. Risch of NASA developed two technical articles that are available on the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS).

Both articles may be freely downloaded from NTRS in various formats, as long as the NASA Server maintains their presence.

As far as we know these are royalty free and the only stipulation that NASA usually requires is an attribution. These are below in the form of links to the article on the NASA web site.

The articles are entitled:

Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part I, 71 pages, publication date 2015-07-08, and Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II, 111 pages, same publication date.

We have reviewed these documents and find them to be an excellent summary of this temperature measurement method and have archived them on our site in two formats, mobi, suitable for reading on an E-reader and in Adobe pdf format.

Part 1 provides and Overview, Nomenclature, a bit about what temperature is and the history of measurement methods and delves into the physics underlying Radiation Thermometry.

Part II covers practical radiation thermometers, some detail on measurement techniques and calibration and a brief reference list.

These files are linked below many be freely downloaded as long as we maintain this website.

The NASA description for both article reads as follows:

This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry.

Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits.

This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components.

The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 20150021314 Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part I NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Free Download & Streaming Internet Archive

Understanding Radiation Thermometry – Part I pdf Format Timothy K. Risch NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center July 8, 2015

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 20150021315 Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Free Download & Streaming Internet Archive

Understanding Radiation Thermometry – Part II pdf Format Timothy K. Risch NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center July 8, 2015

Sources on the NASA Technical Reports Server:

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150021314.pdf

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150021315.pdf