About The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) & More!

GCOS-aboutOnline — GCOS, the Global Climate Observing System, is a joint undertaking of:

  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO),
  • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and
  • The International Council for Science (ICSU).

 

Its goal is to provide comprehensive information on the total climate system, involving a multidisciplinary range of physical, chemical and biological properties, and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, cryospheric and terrestrial processes.

It is built on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS), the IOC-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-UNEP-UNESCO-ICSU Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) and a number of other domain-based and cross-domain research and operational observing systems.

It includes both in situ and remote sensing components, with its space based components coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS).

GCOS is intended to meet the full range of national and international requirements for climate and climate-related observations.

As a system of climate-relevant observing systems, it constitutes, in aggregate, the climate observing component of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

The Global Observing System is an extremely complex undertaking, and perhaps one of the most ambitious and successful instances of international collaboration of the last 100 years. It consists of a multitude of individual observing systems owned and operated by a plethora of national and international agencies with different funding lines, allegiances, overall priorities and management processes.

Learn more at: https://library.wmo.int/opac/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3417 ,  http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=AboutGCOS  and https://public.wmo.int/en/programmes.

 

The Use of Johnson’s Criteria for Thermal Infrared Camera & Systems Performance

Written by: Opgal staff writers  (August 03, 2017)

OPGAL Blog LinkOnline —  When customers are considering which thermal security camera or system to buy, one of the first questions asked of thermal imager manufacturers is usually: “At what distance can the IR camera detect a target?.

In other words, what is the camera’s ability to capture very small details at great distances?

When thinking about effective surveillance, it is indeed a good criterion to differentiate one sensor from another.

No matter which manufacturer you are buying from, the answer given to this question will almost always include the DRI ranges expression.

DRI refers to the distance at which a target can be Detected, Recognized, or Identified, based on certain universally accepted parameters.

In order to select the right sensor for your defense, security, or surveillance needs, these DRI ranges have to be, first, perfectly defined, but also assessed with regards to globally adopted industrial standards.

Enter: The Origin of Johnson’s Criteria

In 1958, at the first ever “Night Vision Image Intensifier Symposium”, John Johnson, a night vision scientist at the U.S. Army’s “Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate” (NVESD), presented a paper named the Analysis of Image Forming Systems”.

Johnson’s paper defined a clear system with criteria and methodology for predicting an observer’s ability to find and assess targets using image intensifying equipment (such as thermal cameras), under various conditions. It worked well, and it was the first of its kind.

Johnson’s Criteria Definitions

Johnson’s model provided definitive criteria for calculating the maximum range at which “Detection, Recognition, and Identification (D, R, I)” could take place, with a 50% probability of success. (Orientation was also discussed, but this parameter is not used or recognized today).

Although newer methodologies for D,R,I exist today, such as NVESD’s “Night Vision Image Performance Model” (NV-IPM), the “Johnson’s Criteria” system was groundbreaking for its time, was the accepted standard in the defense industry for many years, and is still widely used in the security industry today.

Detection

Johnson defined “Detection” as the ability to subtend 1 TV line pair (+/- 0.25 line pairs) across the critical dimension of the subject (this translates to 2 pixels when using an LCD monitor). At the range that this occurs, regardless of target type, the observer could detect that a subject was in the field of view, 50% of the time. Today, many security camera companies loosely follow Johnson’s Criteria and define their camera’s “Detection” performance range as the ability to subtend either 1.5 or 2 pixels on the target, using various target sizes.

Recognition

Johnson defined “Recognition” as the ability to subtend 4 TV line pairs (+/- 0.8 line pairs) across the critical dimension of the subject (this translates to 8 +/- 1 pixels when using an LCD monitor). At the range that this occurs, regardless of target type, the observer determines the type of subject, a human or a car for example, 50% of the time. Today many security camera companies typically define their cameras “Recognition” performance range as the ability to subtend 6 pixels on the target, using various target sizes.

Identification

Johnson defined “Identification” as the ability to subtend 6.4 TV line pairs (+/- 1.5 line pairs) across the critical dimension of the subject (this translates to 12 +/- 3 pixels when using an LCD monitor). At the range that this occurs, regardless of target type, the observer could detect the subject.

Today many security camera companies loosely follow Johnson’s Criteria and define their cameras “Identification” performance range as the ability to subtend 12 pixels on the target, using various target sizes.

Long range performance

Johnson’s Criteria in the Security Industry

DRI ranges, expressed in kilometers (or miles), can usually be found in the specification table of infrared camera brochures, or in a description of the cameras features. While a very helpful jumping off point for narrowing down the options and homing in on the best systems, customers would be doing themselves a disservice to only look at DRI.

This is because today the application of Johnson’s criteria varies somewhat across the security industry. In most instances, documentation uses simplified or modified versions of the criteria, but they do all generally follow similar rules.

Typically, most companies use twelve pixels on the target for identification, six for recognition, and two for detection (sometimes 1.5). However, the target size can vary greatly. Normally the defense industry “NATO” target size (2.3×2.3 meters) is used for calculating the performance range for detecting vehicles, but for a human target, various target sizes can be found.

It is important when selecting your thermal infrared camera to keep in mind that in any given document, the target size for a human can range from 1.7-1.83 meters tall and from 0.3- 0.75 meters wide, and factor this into your decision-making process.

The Need to look at the Bigger Picture

Because end-users often place a high value on the written specifications of the camera, marketing departments are under pressure to use performance calculations that make their cameras look better than the competitors. However, since these calculations typically do not take environmental factors into account, customers should ask their thermal camera providers to explain the other elements and benefits of each camera they are offering, and how they will perform in a variety of conditions.

A modified approach that considers parameters such as these can better help in choosing the right or system for your needs.

The post appeared first on OPGAL.com.

Cyclops™ Infrared Thermometers- Another Update

An Update on the Handheld IR Thermometer line that took over from DFPs*

Cyclops 100 L - High Temperature applications
Cyclops 100 L – High Temperature applications

The NEW Land Cyclops L family of high quality portable non-contact thermal infrared radiation thermometers provides spot temperature measurement with incredible accuracy and reliability.

The Cyclops product line is still going strong after nearly 30 years! (Note that the terms ‘radiation thermometer’ and ‘infrared thermometer” no longer appear on the Ametek-Land webpage that describes these measurement instruments! Clearly that’s an effort to simplify the terminology of these devices.)

Features such as a precision view of the measurement target spot with simultaneous digital display of temperature in the viewfinder, choice of operating and calculating modes, digital output and out of range alarms are provided as standard.

The Cyclops L family of non-contact portable thermometers introduce several new features to this instrument “dynasty”.

*With the introduction of the Minolta-Land Cyclops 52 in the 1980s, Land Instruments basically replaced the widely used Optical Pyrometer, AKA Disappearing Filament Pyrometer (DFP), sold world-wide by Leeds & Northrup Corporation (now defunct).


(ED NOTE: Land took over the full line when Minolta Camera Company merged with Konica and then withdrew from the camera business in the early 2000s.)

Below are some of the features of the latest models

  • On-board Data Storage – Up to 9,999 measurement points, stored inside the thermometer
  • Unique Route Manager – Ideal tool for plants with multiple locations, which you need to monitor on a regular basis. This includes pre-configured location settings for emissivity and window correction – no requirement to make a change to a Cyclops at different locations.
  • UKAS Calibration (option) – Full UKAS calibration in the Land on-site labs
  • New Logger Software – allows users to connect a Land Cyclops Portable thermometer to a personal computer or mobile device and view, analyse and record live temperature readings.
  • Added Protection – industrial rubber casing to withstand harsh environments for extended periods

The new Cyclops 055L Meltmaster is a dedicated high precision, portable non-contact thermometer, designed for accurate temperature measurement of liquid metal in foundries and steel plants.

The new Cyclops 100L is a general purpose, high temperature, portable non-contact thermometer, designed for accurate measurement of temperatures in the range 550 to 3000 °C/ 1022 to 5432 °F, in applications such steel, glass plus other high temperature applications.

The new Cyclops 160L is a general purpose, medium temperature, portable non-contact thermometer, designed for accurate measurement of temperatures in the range 200 to 1400 °C/ 392 to 2552 °F, in applications such steel, glass plus other medium temperature applications.

The unique features of the ruggedized Cyclops 390L portable non-contact thermometer make it the ideal instrument for accurate non contact temperature measurements in hydrocarbon-fuelled furnaces.

For more details on these latest models visit: http://www.landinst.com/product_categories/portable%20non-contact%20thermometers

In The recent past we posted an article entitled: “New, Innovative IR Thermometer from the Minds of…on the original Temperatures.com website (original webpage still at www.temperatures.com/cirt.html).

Lost your Cyclops battery cover? Print one now!!!

Cyclops Battery Compartment coverAMETEK Land understand how easy it is in your busy industries to lose or break a small part like the Cyclops battery cover in day to day use.

AMETEK Land is again at the forefront of technology and have made the 3D design file (STL format) available to print on your own 3D printer.

No longer improvise a solution to hold the batteries in, just download the file, print and fit.

NOTE: For Cyclops B and L models only

Download the file by clicking here, print and fit it

Some Cyclops History

See if you can spot when the actual name changed from “Minolta-Land Cyclops” to just plain “Land Cyclops”. Given the fact that Land products are presently a part of the AMETEK product mix, it’s reasonable to expect a further designation change in the near future. (Hmmmm…“AMETEK Land Cyclops” sounds right)

In 2006 we wrote:

Land Cyclops C100 A “new” Cyclops™ Infrared Thermometer has been born..er…hached..er.. created (that sounds best).

The Cyclops™ Model C100 from Land Instruments International has appeared on the scientific and industrial instrument marketplace without much ballyhoo and glitter.

Yet, its understated presence belies some remarkable things about it and its forebears.

Simply stated: it is the latest in a long family of Cyclopses*, the replacements for the venerable Optical Pyrometer. (It doesn’t sound quite right, but the root word is Greek, not Latin)

In its earliest incarnations in the 1980s as the Minolta-Land Cyclops were breakthrough devices, very innovative and actually more accurate in most uses than the century-plus, much venerated, old Disappearing Filament Optical Pyrometers.

The latest Cyclops, Model C100, is no less innovative in its own quiet way. It is the first portable IR thermometer, of which we are aware, to incorporate Bluetooth RS-232 communications capability.

A brief walk through Cyclops™ Past

When the first Cyclops Model 51 was sold, by the Land companies, then Land Pyrometers Ltd. in the UK and Land Instruments Inc. in North America, it was also understated, but powerful in the market.

In a few short years it and the even more capable Cyclops Model 52, displaced the Optical Pyrometer in all but a few uses.

Going back, first…in the beginning, in the late 1970s, Land Pyrometers, Infrared Division in the UK was developing their own high-temperature handheld IR thermometer to compete with the Leeds & Northrup (L&N) Optical Pyrometer which held a significant portion of the portable, noncontact temperature sensor market around the world.

(ED NOTE: Optical Pyrometers are also known familiarly as “Opticals” and “DFPs”. Some even called them “Paperweights”, they were so heavy.)

When, at around the same time, the Minolta Camera Company of Japan produced a prototype handheld, automatic thermometer that covered the most important portions of the industrial high temperature range.

In comparison with the Land planned unit, the Minolta design was compact, light, sleek and had SLR optics that were adjustable focus and gave a wide view of the observed area.

Then the two companies met.

Minolta-Land Cyclops 51F
Minolta-Land Cyclops 51F

Minolta had a great, well-designed instrument but no experience in the industrial markets. Whereas, Land had years of experience in the metals, glass and ceramics markets and their first prototype was already getting known as “The Meat Tenderizer” by most of the people charged with marketing it.

The “Meat Tenderizer”  was basically rugged and very ugly. Add to that the difference in experience in blackbody calibration and traceability (Land~100%, Minolta~50%) and it was a match destined to be made.

A deal was struck and Land began selling the Minolta-made instruments around the world except for the Japanese home market; Minolta retained that.

The Cyclops 51 and 51F and their successors and variants, the Cyclops 52, 152, 41, 241, 252 etc. were smaller, faster, lighter, less expensive than Optical Pyrometers and didn’t require as much user judgment or training.

They produced results that were just as accurate, if not better than an optical pyrometer measurement, and often did better even in the hands of a new user.

The Cyclops had six other significant features that distinguished them mightily from “Opticals”.

  1. First, they had a precision emissivity adjustment, something DPFs lacked. That meant immediate correction for an object’s emissivity, assuming it was known. No look-up tables needed.
  2. Second, they had an electrical signal output that could be recorded by a portable or fixed chart recorder and/or datalogger, or actually used as an input to a control system. Opticals never had a recordable output. They depended on the operator to manually write down a reading.
  3. Third, they were, and still are (in the higher temperature models), orders of magnitude faster than Opticals. They could follow rapidly changing temperature readily and with the output feature, record them reliably.
  4. Fourth, the temperature reading was digital and could be “peak-picked” to capture high temperature transients. Opticals could never be adjusted rapidly enough to catch a rapid change or spike in temperature.
  5. Fifth, a Cyclops 51 or 51F took only one 9-volt transistor-radio battery, available almost everywhere, to power it. Even today, the latest models use only a few small, common batteries. Plus there is an auxiliary line-power supply for use in semi-continuous datalogging situations. The DFPs used extra-heavy dry cell batteries that added to their 11 pound weight.
  6. Sixth, and most useful, the Cyclops had the wonderfully crisp, clear adjustable-focus Minolta optics with the measurement spot defined by a small graticle in the field of view, and, the field of view included the temperature display. The newer models incorporate an auxiliary digital readout on the side of the case, too. The DFP had a red-filtered view of the object being measured and it was oftern difficult to view the surrounding area.

Cyclops combined innovative features, especially its short response time of 0.08 seconds, have yet to be fully matched by any price-competetive Infrared Radiation Thermometer in the last 20+years.

No wonder the Optical Pyrometer has effectively vanished! (The evaporation of Leeds and Northrup under General Signal Corporation’s watch did help speed things along a lot, too).

Other companies, notably Ircon, Inc, Chino Instruments and Mikron Infrared (formerly Mikron Instrument Company, Inc. – now a part of LumaSense Technologies) produced competitive devices. They helped hasten the slide of the Optical Pyrometer into the realm of instrument antiquity.

We know of only two companies that make or sell Disappearing Filament Optical Pyrometers, ostensibly on the basis of “better accuracy” because of the short wavelength of 0.6 microns.

If the users don’t yet know, there has been a special Cyclops model around for several years called the “Meltmaster” (C228) with an effective wavelength of 0.55 microns.

Ircon (now part of Raytek Corporation, subsidiary of Fluke, Corporation, in turn a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation) and Mikron Infrared (now part of LumaSense Technologies, Inc.)  have similar models, too. Plus Mikron makes two color, ratio thermometers in a portable configuration.

The Cyclops Family Picture Album:

Cyclops Model 51 with Carrying/storage case
Cyclops Model 51 with Carrying/Storage case

Minolta-Land Cyclops 51F
Minolta-Land Cyclops 51F

First there was one Cyclops, the Model 51, then very shortly thereafter there were two, the 51 and 51F.

Yes, there were initially two different models because they were mostly analog instruments and used different linearizer circuits.You know when there’s two of anything what can happen next.

You got it, a family was born! These (above) are however, the  “proud parents”.

(Images courtesy ebay.com, where we found a few on sale)

Cyclops
Cyclops 52 – Made The Market in the 1980s

The first all digital Minolta-Land Cyclops, Model C52. appeared a few years later and it really  smacked down the Optical Pyrometers in the marketplace!

The Model 52 was a revolution in silver-gray plastic. With switchable temperature scale, a, extremely wide temperature range, built-in math functions, super-fast and much more. All for a very reasonable price.

There are rumors of many, and this author knows of a few industry calibration labs, that began to have their Cyclops 52s certified at NIST as used in their own labs as Reference Standards for Radiation Temperature sources.

This was a major step forward in simplifying the traceability of radiation thermometer calibrations!

Land in the UK also offered traceable calibration certificates to the UK’s national calibration system at the time. (They did this in addition to offering a special line of secondary, traceable radiation thermometers and a set of primary fixed point reference cells at some key points on the ITS-90.)

Here’s an incomplete gallery of images and tidbits about the different Cyclops family members over the last twenty or so years.

Cyclops 390B Furnace Pro
Cyclops 390B Furnace Pro

 

Cyclops 390B Furnace Pro Infrared spot thermometer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From left to right, recent Cyclops Models are the New C100; the unit it replaces, the C153; the Meltmaster, C228; The Medium Temperature C241
From left to right, recent Cyclops Models are the New C100; the unit it replaces, the C153; the Meltmaster, C228; The Medium Temperature C241

 

From left to right, recent Cyclops Models are the New C100;

the unit it replaces, the C153; the Meltmaster, C228;

The Medium Temperature C241 and

the low temperature workhorse, the C300.

 

Cyclops-mini view

Cyclops Mini
Cyclops Mini – Image courtesy ebay

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mini Cyclops  was part of the response of Minolta-Land to the popularity of very low cost general purpose instruments like the Raytek Mini in the 1990s, but they couldn’t compete effectively on price and appear to have been discontinued. (Note: The Raytek Mini appears to have been discontinued since Fluke took over, but the Fluke 62 Max seems to be its decedent in a market dominated by very low cost handheld IR Thermometers, many with a built-in laser pointer.)

Minolta/Land Cyclops Compac3
Minolta/Land Cyclops Compac 3 (Image courtesy ebay)

 

There was an earlier low temperature Cyclops called the Compac 3. These can still be found regularly on ebay.com.

 

 

 

 

The Cyclops Family of the 1990s before the very low cost IR Temperature gun market heated up, included a wide range of products such as the Tele, with its very large mirror optical system for measuring near ambient temperatures at relatively long distance, shown in the background here and two special waveband units, one at 3,9 microns for looking through hot combustion gases and one at 3.4 microns for measuring thin plastics.

The high-performance C300 has survived nearly without change since the early 1990s. It, and the unique, but discontinued C300AF, an autofocus model that used the technology of Minolta’s autofocusing 35 mm cameras, were priced relatively high at the time and the latter didn’t last in the marketplace despite its incredible features and specifications.

Cyclops 152 with carrying case

Cyclops 152 as seen on ebay.com

On the left is a side view of the Cyclops Model C152, the real workhorse of the family. For nearly 10 years, from the late 1980s to the late 1990s this was the unit used in many high-temperature places like metals processing plants, glass factories etc. The one pictured here was shown on ebay in December 2017 for the price of $1800!

It came with a sturdy carrying case, but its big innovation was the fully sealed body to resist the ingress of dust and moisture that were the biggest sources of instrument problems used in industrial plants.

Minolta engineered a complex, but reliable, inner-adjustable lens system that had no external screw threads.

Dirt didn’t “screw up” the threads anymore. It just made the best device on the market even more superior.

We are also still seeking a photo of the all-digital Cyclops 52 to add to this page to complete it. The case color and style of the Cyclops 52 was very much like the Cyclops 241 (shown above.)

Check back to see when we’ve found them.

Note: Cyclops is a Trademark of Land Instruments International Ltd.

Footnote: Why do I care about all this stuff?

Chalk it up to a combination of personal involvement and a misguided, possibly compulsive sense of history about temperature measurement devices, infrared ones in particular. I had a big hand in the introduction of the Cyclops to North America as the General Manager and then VP of Engineering of Land Instruments in the USA during Cyclops’s first, second and third generations.

I like to think that I helped make it a big part of the Land organization’s product portfolio by insisting on having it to sell in North America when the first prototypes were offered to Land by Minolta in the late 1970s.

Then, I actually got to use and see first-hand the remarkable accuracy, reliability and stability of the devices, especially the Cyclops 152, 241 and 300 Models, during the 1990s as the Senior Staff Engineer for Temperature Measurement at the now-closed LTV Steel Company’s Technology Center and the corporate manufacturing plants where we used them under some rough, industrial conditions.

At LTV Steel we not only recommended and/or actually equipped several in-house Calibration Laboratories with Cyclops models as certified traceable reference standards, but used them for process investigations and trouble-shooting on many hot-strip mills, taconite pellet process lines, reheat furnaces, annealing lines and process simulation devices.

They never failed in my experience of more than twelve years duration. I published several technical papers based in large part on field measurements in operating steel plants made with Cyclops family models.

Some of those very same devices may be still in use even though LTV Steel has evaporated as a corporation and most of its USA manufacturing plants are now part of the Acelor-Mittal organization.

P. S. Interested in a product listing or doing a sensor review? Check our vendor directories.

  • They are free and self service at TempSensor.net and reviews are accepted.

  • For the Temperatures.com site, Vendors only, please click here.

Industrial temperature measurement | Basics and practice

Free Download From ABB

(Extract From the Introduction)

With this Handbook for industrial temperature measurements we are attempting to provide the technician with solutions to his wide variety of responsibilities. At the same time, it provides for those new to the field, insight into the basics of the most important measurement principles and their application limits in a clear and descriptive manner.

The basic themes include material science and measurement technology, applications, signal processing and fieldbus communication.

A practice oriented selection of appropriate temperature sensor designs for the process field is presented as well as therequired communication capability of the meter locations.

The factory at Alzenau, Germany, a part of ABB, is the Global Center of Competencefor Temperature, with numerous local experts on hand in the most important industrialsectors, is responsible for activities worldwide in this sector.

125 years of temperature measurement technology equates to experience and competence. At the same time, it forms an important basis for continued innovation.

In close cooperation with our customers and users, our application engineers create conceptsto meet the measurement requirements.

Our Sector-Teams support the customer, planner and user in the preparation of professional solutions.

Free download available online at: https://library.e.abb.com/public/6bfb8fc893ac4d0da0a806ce8cd73996/03_TEMP_EN_E.pdf

Author Team:
Karl Ehinger, Dieter Flach, Lothar Gellrich, Eberhard Horlebein, Dr. Ralf Huck, Henning Ilgner, Thomas Kayser, Harald Müller, Helga Schädlich, Andreas Schüssler, Ulrich Staab,

ABB Automation Products GmbH

Many thanks to the publishing group at ControlEngineering-Europe for alerting us to this new online resource (http://www.controlengeurope.com/article/140944/Handbook-aims-to-simplify-industrial-temperature-measurement.aspx)

Calibration and Metrology training Webinars

Calibration and Metrology training Webinars by Fluke CalibrationCalibration and metrology training webinars are free and offer real-world expertise and practical tips about electrical, flow, pressure, RF and temperature calibration and metrology.

New webinars are added monthly.

If you would like to be the first to know about new seminars, sign up for Fluke Calibration’s metrology and calibration training webinar alerts.

If you can’t find the topic you seek, they may have already covered it.

View their list of 90+ on-demand calibration and metrology training webinars to find out.

A calibration bath primer

Courtesy of FLUKE Corporation

FLUKE Calibration Bath

I’m a big fan of calibration baths.

When I managed our temperature calibration laboratory, I relied on them.

With a series of baths and a liquid nitrogen comparator, we were able to perform a large volume of accredited temperature calibrations with lower uncertainties from -197 °C to 500 °C than would have been possible in any other way.

By Ron Ainsworth from FLUKE Calibration.

Read the Fluke Calibraion Bath Primer online

Ron Ainsworth is the Business Manager for Process Calibration Tools at Fluke Calibration. After graduating with a degree in physics in 1998, he started in the primary temperature calibration laboratory in American Fork Utah.

Mercury Thermometer Alternatives by NIST

Promoting alternatives

no mercuryOnline —  The USA’s National Institute for Science & Technology (NIST) is not only  the nation’s National Metrology Institute (NMI), it also serves additional roles, including cooperating with other government agencies to safeguard people from harm due to sensors or practices that could be hazardous.

About 20 years ago the use of mercury-filled sensors, such as barometers, hygrometers and liquid-in-glass thermometers were recognized as sources of long-term hazards to man and nearly all animals.

The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began efforts to ban the use of mercury in such devices and NIST has been in the forefront of the effort, along with volunteer organizations like ASTM International.

NIST has published a series of webpages that describe the issues related to mercury filled thermometers and considered several alternatives, some of which, in this Editor’s opinion are long overdue.

The rest of this article is copied from the December 22, 2016 NIST webpage: https://www.nist.gov/pml/sensor-science/thermodynamic-metrology/mercury-thermometer-alternatives-promoting-alternatives that begins the NIST series of information pages to help users understand some of the alternatives to mercury-filled  Liquid-in-Glass thermometers.

In effect these new temperature sensor alternatives bring many testing and measuring practices into the modern world of both sensor and display technologies, providing durability, precision and traceability along with digital options, in many cases.

Mercury-filled thermometers have historically served numerous industries as reliable temperature standards. Increased regulation and the high cost of cleaning up mercury spills have encouraged the use of alternative types of thermometers.

To support the use of alternative thermometers, the NIST Temperature and Humidity Group provides guidance documents, training, and technical consultation to other government agencies and standards-developing organizations.

Replacement of mercury thermometers with suitable alternatives will reduce releases of mercury into the environment and will reduce costs incurred to clean up mercury spills.

Historically, healthcare and regulated testing laboratories have relied greatly on NIST-calibrated mercury-in-glass thermometers as stable reference standards of temperature.

The use of mercury thermometers has been virtually eliminated in routine hospital use, but a wide variety of regulations and test methods continue to specify mercury thermometers.

Mercury thermometers have several intrinsic advantages:

  • they are stable for long periods,
  • failure is usually visually apparent, and
  • they require little training or maintenance.

 

However, mercury is a powerful neurotoxin, and the cost of cleaning a mercury spill in industry is many thousands of dollars. Furthermore, many states restrict the sale of mercury thermometers.

In 2008, the NIST Temperature and Humidity Group worked with several organizations to reduce or eliminate the use of mercury thermometers.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):  the EPA hosted meetings in the Spring of 2008 to discuss strategies to eliminate the use of mercury thermometers in EPA regulations and laboratories. NIST provided technical guidance documents, presentations, and technical advice as experts in temperature measurements.

Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI):  NIST Temperature and Humidity Group staff have worked with CLSI staff to update standards calling for the use of mercury-in-glass SRM thermometers, enabling laboratories to use other thermometer types with NIST traceability.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):  Control of temperature is critical to proper storage of vaccines, in order to preserve safety and efficacy. At CDC’s invitation, the NIST Temperature and Humidity Group gave a presentation at the May, 2008 “Vaccine University” that CDC sponsors. Over 60 participants learned how traceable temperature measurement and control can be achieved with modern electronic thermometers.

These activities build on support provided in 2007 to the Food and Drug Administration (steam processing of food) and ASTM committee D2 on petroleum.

In an environment of increased regulatory and economic pressures to discontinue the use of mercury thermometers, NIST has provided timely and critically important technical advice to other federal agencies and thermometer users, ensuring that important industrial and health-care temperature measurements are performed efficiently and accurately.

Major accomplishments:

  • Guidance document published on how to identify alternatives to mercury liquid-in-glass thermometers.
  • Technical support provided to other government agencies and to developers of documentary standards.

 

Links to other NIST webpages:

 

Selected Publications & Related Links

 

Questions about Mercury Thermometer Alternatives?

Thermography Resources:

Organizations & Meetings

Some of the organizations and meetings shown below are run by training companies and one, the Annual Thermosense Conference, is a technical conferences for thermographers and others involved in R&D, Equipment Development, Process applications and other uses in both Imaging and Sensing via infrared means.

This latter meeting usually runs for 3 1/2 days in the Spring, rotating between Orlando Florida, Baltimore, Maryland and Anaheim, California. It is held in conjunction with a large equipment exhibition and several high tech conferences, all under the banner of a SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) meeting.

  • African Thermograpy User Group
    An Association of Thermography organizations in Southern Africa with about 12 members. Web site has references to training programs run by nearby office of Asea Brown Boveri(ABB).
  • ASNT
    The Association for Non Destructive Testing
    in Columbus Ohio, USA. There are other national organizations around the world affiliated with ASNT and links to them are on this web site.
  • ASTM International
    The American Society for Testing and Materials is one of the largest developers of voluntary consensus standards in the world. There are several committees within ASTM that are active in developing and maintaining standards related to Non-contact temperature measurement and thermal imaging in NDT/NDE.
  • IR/Info
    A Web site and Annual Training Conference with lots of information, Also a connections to an Internet discussion forum, sponsored by The Infraspection Institute.
  • InfraMation
    An e-Newsletter and a topical meeting sponsored by The Infrared Training Center, division of FLIR-InfraMation 2003 is already in the works, and is planned to be held in Orlando, Florida. Contact abstracts@inframation.org.
  • JCDPublishing
    Winter Park, Florida (USA) A publisher of specialty books related to IR and thermal imaging, Also runs training courses for organizations including SPIE. Run by a well-known specialist in IR imaging technology, Gerry Holst.
  • Professional Thermographers Association
    Provides a Directory of Infrared Consulting Companies, Key Points to Choosing an Infrared Consulting Company , Specifications to consider when contracting an Infrared Consulting Company and Generic Specifications for the contracting of an Infrared Electrical / Mechanical PdM inspection to insure that you get a quality job.
  • The Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Conference
    An international conference. Up to now, there has been twelve QIRT conferences (see Archive Section for the complete list).
  • The Snell Group
    An organization that provides many training courses for both Infrared Thermographers and also Motor Inspectors,
  • SPIE Thermosense
    A broad, topical meeting for the international IR Thermal Imaging and sensing technology community. Program on the Thermosense Web site. View the SPIE website for registration and arrangements information.
  • UK Thermographers Association
    UKTA-A national organization based in Bracknell, England with many many links to the USA and other parts of the world.

National Physical Laboratory Video Presentations on Temperature Measurements

 

New references for high temperature measurements

As a culmination of an eight-year research programme an international collaboration has developed robust reference fixed points, studied their sensitivity to impurities and external conditions and finally measured their melting transition temperature.

This talk describes how 100+ measurements made by nine different NMIs have been combined to assign low-uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures to the melting transition of Re-C, Pt-C and Co-C metal-carbon eutectics.

At the simplest level, these fixed-points will provide new temperature references for the calibration of pyrometers at temperatures above the freezing point of silver (1234.93 K) and will thus reduce the uncertainties associated with high temperature measurement compared to those achievable using the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90).

The thermodynamic temperatures of these fixed-points have been determined through direct measurement of the radiance of a blackbody cavity surrounded by the fixed-point material from Planck’s law and hence the Boltzmann Constant. The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin encourages the realisation and dissemination of thermodynamic temperature.

This may be directly – and the work described in this talk shows that filter radiometry is sufficiently mature for this, or it may be by providing fixed-points with reference thermodynamic temperatures that have associated uncertainties – and this talk will outline such temperatures.
Innovations in High Temperature Measurement

A 49 minute review of the present technical status of High Temperature measurement by one of the leaders in temperature Metrology at NPL in the UK.

Presented by Dr. Graham Machin, NPL (Recorded July 2011)

Recent and unfolding innovations in this area promise step change improvements throughout the measurement chain; from realisation of temperature above 1300 K in National Measurement Institutes, dissemination of the scale to calibration laboratories, down to the practice of industrial high temperature thermometry.

Source: http://www.npl.co.uk/science-lectures/high-temperature-measurement

More details: Read more National Physical Laboratory Video Presentations on Temperature Measurements

New references for high temperature measurements

Summary of work reported for high temperature measurements from NPL

As a culmination of an eight-year research programme an international collaboration has developed robust reference fixed points, studied their sensitivity to impurities and external conditions and finally measured their melting transition temperature.

This talk describes how 100+ measurements made by nine different NMIs have been combined to assign low-uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures to the melting transition of Re-C, Pt-C and Co-C metal-carbon eutectics.

At the simplest level, these fixed-points will provide new temperature references for the calibration of pyrometers at temperatures above the freezing point of silver (1234.93 K) and will thus reduce the uncertainties associated with high temperature measurement compared to those achievable using the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90).

The thermodynamic temperatures of these fixed-points have been determined through direct measurement of the radiance of a blackbody cavity surrounded by the fixed-point material from Planck’s law and hence the Boltzmann Constant.

The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin encourages the realisation and dissemination of thermodynamic temperature.

This may be directly – and the work described in this talk shows that filter radiometry is sufficiently mature for this, or it may be by providing fixed-points with reference thermodynamic temperatures that have associated uncertainties – and this talk outlines such temperatures.

Recorded: 16 June 2015

Speaker: Emma Woolliams

Last Updated: 10 Sep 2015

Source: http://www.npl.co.uk/science-lectures/new-references-for-high-temperature-measurements

YouTube Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4Ws6PiqQ9cs.YouTube video:

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