Glossaries

There are many specialized glossaries that cover the terms describing the unique details of temperature and moisture sensors and their uses and this page represents an attempt to index most of them and related topics, such as Meteorology, in one place.

CONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS:

Thermistors: https://www.temperatures.com/blog/2018/04/04/thermistor-gloss…-and-terminology/.

Thermocouples:

RTDS: 

NONCONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS:

Many online articles about radiation thermometry and its uses (infrared thermometers, radiation pyrometers) exist including technology articles, PowerPoint slide presentations and .pdf downloads, but they seem to be vanishing as more and more “big businesses” take over these specialized sensors.But few are aimed at being useful glossaries or definition of terms.

There are some exceptions and some well-crafted pieces that have been online for a while and can be found in semi-hidden corners of the Web.

Thermal Radiation Thermometers: temperature_measurement_radiation_thermometers

Thermal Imaging:  (Glossary of Basic Thermography Terms) http://www.ne-spintech.com/Glossary%20of%20Basic%20Thermography%20Terms.pdf .

Meteorology

American Meteorological Society’s (AMS) Glossary of Meteorology

The electronic version of the second edition of the AMS Glossary of Meteorology is a living document and meant to be periodically updated as terms in the field evolve. To that end, AMS has established a Chief Editor for the Glossary who is responsible for updating/revising existing terms and adding new terms. Learn more about the Glossary and current Editorial Board.

For recommendations on correctly citing and referencing the Glossary of Meteorology, please see the Glossary entry for Citation.

If you have any feedback or editing suggestions to the content in this Glossary, please contact the Chief Editor.

Glossary – NOAA’s National Weather Service

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the NWS. Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years and before many NWS products were directly available to the public.

Glossary of Weather, Climate and Ocean 2nd Edition

ISBN: 9781935704799

Intended for educators, students and the public and inspired by increasingly interest in the atmosphere, ocean and our changing climate, this glossary provides an understandable, up-to-date reference for terms frequently used in discussions or descriptions of meteorological, oceanographic and climatological phenomena. In addition, the glossary includes definitions of related hydrologic terms.

Clearly this page is a work in progress, and it may be expanded in time. Priority will be according to the response it garners.

About The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) & More!

GCOS-aboutOnline — GCOS, the Global Climate Observing System, is a joint undertaking of:

  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO),
  • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and
  • The International Council for Science (ICSU).

 

Its goal is to provide comprehensive information on the total climate system, involving a multidisciplinary range of physical, chemical and biological properties, and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, cryospheric and terrestrial processes.

It is built on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS), the IOC-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-UNEP-UNESCO-ICSU Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) and a number of other domain-based and cross-domain research and operational observing systems.

It includes both in situ and remote sensing components, with its space based components coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS).

GCOS is intended to meet the full range of national and international requirements for climate and climate-related observations.

As a system of climate-relevant observing systems, it constitutes, in aggregate, the climate observing component of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

The Global Observing System is an extremely complex undertaking, and perhaps one of the most ambitious and successful instances of international collaboration of the last 100 years. It consists of a multitude of individual observing systems owned and operated by a plethora of national and international agencies with different funding lines, allegiances, overall priorities and management processes.

Learn more at: https://library.wmo.int/opac/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3417 ,  http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=AboutGCOS  and https://public.wmo.int/en/programmes.

 

WMO World Weather & Climate Extremes Archive

About The Archive

Screen Shot 2017-09-14 WMO Archive PageOnline —  In 2006, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Climatology (CCl) WMO OPAG 2 group unanimously agreed to the creation of a world archive for verifying, certifying and storing world weather extremes.

They agreed that a set of procedures should be established such that existing record extremes are verified and made available to the general public and that future weather record extremes are verified and certified.

They agreed that future weather extremes would be evaluated by a committee consisting of the WMO CCl Rapporteur for Climate Extremes, the chair of the OPAG 2 group, the chair of the overarching CC1 group, a regional authority, and as necessary an authority associated with the specific type of record (temperature, pressure, hail, tornado, tropical cyclone, etc.).

The committee would recommend a finding to the Rapporteur. The Rapporteur for Climate Extremes would have final authority and responsibility for certifying the record.

All accepted and verified record extremes (with corresponding metadata) are to given on this website.

Inquiries for consideration of new world/regional weather records should be made to the Rapporteur for Climate Extremes: Randy Cerveny (cerveny@asu.edu)

 

Archive TaWorld Meteorological Organization's World Weather & Climate Extremes Archivebles include:

Temperature: Highest & Lowest Temperature

Pressure: Highest Sea Level Air Pressure Below 750 m, Highest Sea Level Air Pressure Above 750 m, and Lowest Sea Level Air Pressure (excluding tornadoes).

Rainfall: Greatest 1-Min Rainfall, Greatest 60-Min Rainfall, Greatest 12-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 24-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 48-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 72-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 96-Hr Rainfall, and Greatest 12-Mo Rainfall.

Hail: Heaviest Hailstone

Aridity: Longest Dry Period

Wind: Maximum Gust, Maximum Gust for Tropical Cyclone

Lightning :Longest Distance Lightning Flash, Longest Duration Lightning Flash

Weather-Related Mortality:  Highest Mortality: Lightning, Highest Mortality: Lightning (single stroke), Highest Mortality: Tropical Cyclone, Highest Mortality: Tornado, Highest Mortality: Hailstorm

Hemispheric Weather & Climate Extremes

Continental Weather & Climate Extremes: Based on World Meteorological Organization Defined Regions

World Tornado Records

World Tropical Cyclone Records

World Meteorological-Related Phenomena Records

Open MapViewer

and,

Latest News

Members of the inaugural WMOCCL OPAG2 committee for the World:

  • Craig Donlon (United Kingdom)
  • Jay Lawrimore (United States)
  • Rainer Hollmann (Germany)
  • Thomas C. Peterson (United States)
  • Wan Azli Wan Hassan (Malaysia)
  • Xiaolan Wang (Canada)
  • Zuqiang Zhang (China)

 

Current managers of the WMO Weather and Climate Extremes Archive are:
Dr. Randy Cerveny, School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University
Bohumil Svoma, School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University

Visit the Archive online at: https://wmo.asu.edu/

US National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).

Finding Data by Category

Online — The demand for high-value environmental data and information has dramatically increased in recent years. To improve their ability to meet that demand, the USA’s former three NOAA data centers

  1. The National Climatic Data Center,
  2. The National Geophysical Data Center, and
  3. The National Oceanographic Data Center, which includes the National Coastal Data Development Center,

have merged into the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI – www.ncei.noaa.gov/).

NCEI is responsible for hosting and providing access to one of the most significant archives on Earth, with comprehensive oceanic, atmospheric, and geophysical data.

From the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun and from million-year-old sediment records to near real-time satellite images, NCEI is the Nation’s leading authority for environmental information.

NCEI continues the tradition of excellence, unmatched expertise, and trusted, authoritative data that the previous three Data Centers established. The top priority during the near future is to build on the full spectrum of atmospheric, oceanographic, coastal, and geophysical products and services that the Data Centers delivered.

While NCEI’s product portfolio will evolve as current products and services are assessed, no products or services are currently slated to be cut or reduced. By using consistent data stewardship tools and practices across all of our science disciplines and by forging an improved data management paradigm, we expect to provide users with improved access to environmental data and information archive products.

For more information, please visit www.ncei.noaa.gov.

Will their websites’ URLs change?

Existing links and domain names (e.g., www.ncdc.noaa.gov) for the Data Centers will continue to be accessible. Over time, the merged Data Centers will develop a plan to consolidate domains.

This change will be advertised, and all appropriate redirects will be established.

The NCEI landing webpage has been established as an overview to the new organization.

How will this impact users?

The goal is to provide minimal impacts to users in the short-term. Existing products and services will remain on their current sites, and access will not change. In the long-term, the merger will improve the creation of new products and the access and delivery of existing products and services to users.

A Trusted Authority on Weather and Climate Information

The Nation needs a trusted authority on weather and climate information. Every day, governments, businesses, and individuals make long-term decisions—affecting lives and livelihoods—that require an accurate understanding of the natural environment. NCEI is well positioned to respond to this need by building upon the former National Climatic Data Center’s 61 years of data and customer-focused science, service, and stewardship.

NCEI develops national and global datasets, which are utilized to maximize the use of our climatic and natural resources while also minimizing the risks caused by climate variability and weather extremes. NCEI helps describe the climate of the United States and it acts as the “Nation’s Scorekeeper” regarding the trends and anomalies of weather and climate.

NCEI’s climate data have been used in a variety of applications including agriculture, air quality, construction, education, energy, engineering, forestry, health, insurance, landscape design, livestock management, manufacturing, national security, recreation and tourism, retailing, transportation, and water resources management.

Find Data by Category

About NOAA

NOAA, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, provides daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings, and climate monitoring to fisheries management, coastal restoration and supporting marine commerce, NOAA’s products and services supporting economic vitality. These affect more than one-third of America’s gross domestic product. NOAA’s dedicated scientists use cutting-edge research and high-tech instrumentation to provide citizens, planners, emergency managers and other decision makers with reliable information they need when they need it.

About Climate Data at Berkeley Earth

Berkeley Earth
Berkeley Earth – team meeting 6/25/2013. Clockwise starting in the lower left: Saul Perlmutter, Pamela Hyde, Richard Muller, Jonathan Wurtele, Arthur Rosenfeld, Don Groom, Steven Mosher, Zeke Hausfather, Elizabeth Muller, Robert Rohde.

Online — Berkeley Earth (http://berkeleyearth.org) was conceived by Richard and Elizabeth Muller in early 2010 when they found merit in some of the concerns of skeptics.

They organized organized a group of scientists to reanalyze the Earth’s surface temperature record, and published their initial findings in 2012.

Berkeley Earth became an independent non-profit 501(c)(3) in February 2013.

From 2010-2012, Berkeley Earth systematically addressed the five major concerns that global warming skeptics had identified, and did so in a systematic and objective manner.

The first four were potential biases from (1) data selection, (2) data adjustment, (3) poor station quality, and (4) the urban heat island effect.

Their analysis showed that these issues did not unduly bias the record. More details on the website’s About Page at: http://berkeleyearth.org/about/

Overview of findings: http://berkeleyearth.org/summary-of-findings.

Air Pollution Overview

Some Other Berkeley Earth Website Content

Berkeley Earth Blog

Learn more

Berkeley Earth has published five scientific papers setting out the main conclusions of the study to date:

  1. A New Estimate of the Average Earth Surface Land Temperature Spanning 1753 to 2011
  2. Berkeley Earth Temperature Averaging Process (commonly referred to as the “Methods” paper) and its appendix
  3. Influence of Urban Heating on the Global Temperature Land Average
  4. Earth Atmospheric Land Surface Temperature and Station Quality in the United States
  5. Decadal Variations in the Global Atmospheric Land Temperatures

The Berkeley Earth team is making these preliminary results public, together with the analysis programs and data set in order to invite additional scrutiny as part of the peer review process.

You can also look up the temperature record by location (city, country, etc.).

 

IMPROVING HUMIDITY MEASUREMENTS IN METEOROLOGY

A product with a unique advantage

EE33 sensor tube - thermal image
EE33 sensor tube – thermal image

Air humidity and temperature play an important role in meteorology. Highly accurate measurements of these climate parameters form the basis of accurate forecasts and meaningful records.

The E+E Elektronik Model EE33 series humidity and temperature sensor is the only one on the market with a double-heated probe. Both the sensor tube and the sensor element are heated.

An application note, free for download from their website, tells the rest of the story.

You can download it be clicking here.

If that does not work, as sometimes happens when organizations “refine” their websites, we have archived a copy in our database; it may be downloaded here: Humidity_measurement_meteorology

Related technical webpages & download from E+E Elektronik:

E+E Elektronik – the Sensor specialist for humidity sensors, CO2 sensors, moisture in oil, dew point, air velocity, flow and temperature sensors. As a specialist for sensors E+E Elektronik produces humidity sensorsCO2 sensorsflow sensors, transmitters, hand-held meters and  dataloggers for the measurement of relative humiditymoisture in oildewpoint,
air velocityflowCO2 and temperature. E+E also operates a nationally accredited calibration lab and is appointed to maintain the “National Standard for Humidity and Air Flow Speed in Austria”

World HQ

E+E Elektronik Ges.m.b.H.
Langwiesen 7
A-4209 Engerwitzdorf
Austria

Tel: +43 (0)7235 605-0
Fax: +43 (0)7235 605-8
E-mail: info@epluse.com
Website: www.epluse.com

USA

E+E Elektronik Corp.
124 Grove Street
Franklin, MA 02038
United States

Tel: +1 508 530 3068
Fax: +1 508 346 3798
E-mail: gleighton@epluse.com

The EarthTemp Network

 

Online — EarthTemp is a network to stimulate new international collaboration in measuring and understanding the surface temperatures of Earth. This will involve experts specialising in different types of measurement of surface temperature, who do not usually meet.

Their motivation is the need for better understanding of in situ measurements and satellite observations to quantify surface temperature as it changes from day to day, month to month.

Knowing about surface temperature variations matters because these affect ecosystems and human life, and the interactions of the surface and the atmosphere. (for more details, see motivations and objectives and scientific context – http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/research/earthtemp/objectives.html and http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/research/earthtemp/context.html).

The network is organised around three themes over three years.

In the first year (2012), they focused on Taking the temperature of the Earth: Temperature Variability and Change across all Domains of Earth’s Surfacehttp://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/research/earthtemp/themes/1_in_situ_satellite.

This is an inclusive question, designed to bring together research communities and develop a full picture of common research needs and aspirations.

The second year (2013) discusses Characterising surface temperatures in data-sparse and extreme regions (with an Arctic focus – http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/research/earthtemp/themes/2_data-sparse).

EarthTemp People

Management group

Chris Merchant (Principal Investigator)
Dr. Chris Merchant is Reader in Earth Observation in the School of GeoSciences (University of Edinburgh). His principal expertise is use of thermal and reflectance imagery from satellites for observing surface temperature for climate applications, with interests also in lakes, aerosols, clouds, air-­sea fluxes and the radiation budget.

John Remedios (Co-Principal Investigator)
Prof. John Remedios is Professor of Earth Observation Science (EOS) in the Space Research Centre (University of Leicester). His research interests include surface temperatures and atmospheric correction; climate trends; measurements, retrievals and exploitation of tropospheric pollution and stratospheric composition; and validation and calibration of satellite instrument data.

Nick Rayner (Co-Principal Investigator)
Dr. Nick Rayner is a scientist at the Hadley Center (Met Office) where she leads the analysis of marine climate observations. Her expertise includes sea surface temperature, marine air temperature and sea ice observations, and the the statistical reconstructions of historical climate data.

Stephan Matthiesen (Project manager)
Dr. Stephan Matthiesen is a physicist and works as project manager and researcher at the School of GeoSciences (University of Edinburgh). He is also a freelance translator and editor of scientific texts.

Steering group

Jacob L. Høyer, Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)
Phil Jones, University of East Anglia (UEA)
Folke Olesen, Karslsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
Hervé Roquet, Centre de Météorologie Spatiale, MeteoFrance
José Sobrino, University of Valencia
Peter Thorne, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Website support: Science and Engineering at The University of Edinburgh

Website: http://earthtemp.org/

News Feed: http://www.google.com/reader/public/atom/user/15733979554046153349/state/com.google/broadcast

Data on Temperatures- Weather & Climate

 

>>Temperature Data<<

Temperature Data – NODC – NOAA

by A Allegra – 2010

May 24, 2012 – Resources. temperature data title image. NODC’s most complete global temperature datasets are contained in: World Ocean Atlas/Database:.

  • Shipboard Sensor Database (SSD) – a standard suite of underway data from NOAA ships. These data include measurements of salinity and temperature from thermosalinographs, bottom depth, wind speed and direction, atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity, position and date/time.
  • Korea Oceanographic Database (KOD) – A regional portal which includes measurements of temperature, salinity, nutrients and meteorological parameters.

NASA | Taking Earth’s Temperature

A short video explaining how researchers use computer models to study climate change.

For more information visit http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/ClimateEssen…

NASA has compiled a multimedia resource collection for editors and producers developing climate-related stories. Taking Earths Temperature is one of the many resources included in the gallery.

Organized by topic, the videos, data visualizations, conceptual animations, and print-resolution images illustrate key concepts and discoveries in climate science. The compilation also features ten of NASAs most popular climate visualizations.

The gallery can be found at NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio (http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/ClimateEssentials

­ and NASA’s Global Climate Change site (http://climate.nasa.gov/ClimateReel). Images and videos can be downloaded directly from those pages and may also be available by request.

Want more? Subscribe to NASA on iTunes!
http://phobos.apple.com/WebObjects/MZ…

Or get tweeted by NASA:
http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard

Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!