Summary for Policymakers of IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5ºC

Plus a downloadable copy here

SR15 IPCC Report CoverINCHEON, Republic of Korea, —  Limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society, the IPCC said in a new assessment.
With clear benefits to people and natural ecosystems, limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC compared to 2 ºC could go hand in hand with ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said on Monday last week.
The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC was approved by the IPCC on Saturday in Incheon, Republic of Korea.
It will be a key scientific input into the Katowice Climate Change Conference in Poland in December, when governments review the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change.
“With more than 6,000 scientific references cited and the dedicated contribution of thousands of expert and government reviewers worldwide, this important report testifies to the breadth and policy relevance of the IPCC,” said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC.
Ninety-one authors and review editors from 40 countries prepared the IPCC report in response to an invitation from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) when it adopted the Paris Agreement in 2015.
The report’s full name is: Global Warming of 1.5°C, an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways,in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.
“One of the key messages that comes out very strongly from this report is that we are already seeing the consequences of 1 °C of global warming through more extreme weather, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice, among other changes,” said Panmao Zhai, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I.
The report highlights a number of climate change impacts that could be avoided by limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC compared to 2 ºC, or more.
For instance, by 2100, global sea level rise would be 10 cm lower with global warming of 1.5 °C compared with 2°C.
The likelihood of an Arctic Ocean free of sea ice in summer would be once per century with global warming of 1.5 °C, compared with at least once per decade with 2 °C.
Coral reefs would decline by 70-90 percent with global warming of 1.5 °C, whereas virtually all (> 99 percent) would be lost with 2 ºC.
“Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5 ºC or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems,” said Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.
Limiting global warming would also give people and ecosystems more room to adapt and remain below relevant risk thresholds, added Pörtner. The report also examines pathways available to limit warming to 1.5 ºC, what it would take to achieve them and what the consequences could be.
“The good news is that some of the kinds of actions that would be needed to limit global warming to 1.5 ºC are already underway around the world,but they would need to accelerate,” said Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of Working Group I.
The report finds that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require “rapid and far-reaching” transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities. Global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would need to fall by about 45 percentfrom 2010 levels by 2030, reaching ‘net zero’ around 2050. This means that any remaining emissions would need to be balanced by removing CO2 from the air.
“Limiting warming to 1.5 ºC is possible within the laws of chemistry and physics but doing so would require unprecedented changes,” said Jim Skea, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III.
Allowing the global temperature to temporarily exceed or ‘overshoot’ 1.5 ºC would mean a greater reliance on techniques that remove CO2
from the air to return global temperature to below 1.5 ºC by 2100.
The effectiveness of such techniques are unproven at large scale and some may carrysignificant risks for sustainable development, the report notes.
“Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C compared with 2 °C would reduce challenging impacts on ecosystems, human health and well-being, making it easier to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals,” said Priyardarshi Shukla, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group  III.
The decisions we make today are critical in ensuring a safe and sustainable world for everyone, both now and in the future, said Debra Roberts, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.
“This report gives policymakers and practitioners the information they need to make decisions that tackle climate change while considering local context and people’s needs. The next few years are probably the most important in our history,” she said.
The IPCC is the leading world body for assessing the science related to climate change, its impactsand potential future risks, and possible response options.
The report was prepared under the scientific leadership of all three IPCC working groups.
  • WorkingGroup I assesses the physical science basis of climate change;
  • Working Group II addresses impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and
  • Working Group III deals with the mitigation of climate change.
The Paris Agreement adopted by 195 nations at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 included the aim
of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change by “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.”
As part of the decision to adopt the Paris Agreement, the IPCC was invited to produce, in 2018, a Special Report on global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. The IPCC accepted the invitation, adding that the Special
Report would look at these issues in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.
Global Warming of 1.5 ºC is the first in a series of Special Reports to be produced in the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Cycle. Next year the IPCC will release the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, and Climate Change and Land, which looks at how climate change affects land use.
The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) presents the key findings of the Special Report, based on the assessment of the available scientific, technical and socio-economic literature relevant to global warming of 1.5 °C.
The Summary for Policymakers of the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC (SR15) is available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/
Key statistics of the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC
– 91 authors from 44 citizenships and 40 countries of residence;
– 14 Coordinating Lead Authors (CLAs);
– 60 Lead authors (LAs);
– 17 Review Editors (REs);
– 133 Contributing authors (CAs);
– Over 6,000 cited references;
– A total of 42,001 expert and government review comments.
(First Order Draft 12,895; Second Order Draft 25,476; Final Government Draft: 3,630)
For more information, contact:
IPCC Press Office,
Email:ipcc-media@wmo.int
Werani Zabula +41 79 108 3157 or Nina Peeva +41 79 516 7068

Below are the links to the details about each aspect of the report:

GISS Surface Temperature of Earth (GISTEMP)

An Extract from The NASA GISTEMP Webpage

GISTEMP Figures
Image Courtesy NASA GISS

The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) is an estimate of global surface temperature change.

Graphs and tables are updated around the middle of every month using current data files from NOAA GHCN v3 (meteorological stations), ERSST v5 (ocean areas), and SCAR (Antarctic stations), combined as described in our December 2010 publication (Hansen et al. 2010).

These updated files incorporate reports for the previous month and also late reports and corrections for earlier months.

News and Updates

See the GISTEMP News page for a list of announcements and NASA articles related to the GISTEMP analysis.

See the Updates to Analysis page for detailed update information.

Contacts

Before contacting us, please check if your question about the GISTEMP analysis is already answered in the FAQ.

If the FAQ does not answer your question, please address your inquiry to Dr. Reto Ruedy.

Other researchers participating in the GISTEMP analysis are Avi Persin, Dr. Makiko Sato, and Dr. Ken Lo. This research was initiated by Dr. James E. Hansen, now retired. It is currently led by Dr. Gavin Schmidt.

Citation

When referencing the GISTEMP data provided here, please cite both this webpage and also our most recent scholarly publication about the data. In citing the webpage, be sure to include the date of access.

Background of the GISS Analysis

The basic GISS temperature analysis scheme was defined in the late 1970s by James Hansen when a method of estimating global temperature change was needed for comparison with one-dimensional global climate models. The scheme was based on the finding that the correlation of temperature change was reasonably strong for stations separated by up to 1200 km, especially at middle and high latitudes. This fact proved sufficient to obtain useful estimates for global mean temperature changes.

Temperature analyses were carried out prior to 1980, notably those of Murray Mitchell, but most covered only 20-90°N latitudes. Our first published results (Hansen et al. 1981) showed that, contrary to impressions from northern latitudes, global cooling after 1940 was small, and there was net global warming of about 0.4 °C between the 1880s and 1970s.

The early analysis scheme went through a series of enhancements that are listed and illustrated on the History Page.

See the rest of this, in-depth NASA webpage and more starting at: https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/.

About GISS

The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of National Aeronautics and Space Administration‘s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The ESD is part of GSFC’s Sciences and Exploration Directorate.

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
2880 Broadway
New York, NY 10025 USA

General inquiries about the scientific programs at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies may be directed to the Goddard Space Flight Center Public Affairs office at 1-301-286-8955.

https://www.giss.nasa.gov

Sea Surface Temperature (SST) | NOAA Resources

Online — Satellite SST is the longest and most mature application of ocean remote sensing. Passive observations are made with infrared (IR) sensors onboard multiple polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms, and microwave sensors onboard polar platforms.

The IR sensors have higher spatial (1-4 km) and temporal (10-15 min, onboard geostationary satellites) resolution, and superior radiometric performance.

However, IR sensors cannot “see through cloud”, thus typically limiting retrievals to ~20% of the global ocean, whereas microwave sensors may see through clouds (except heavily precipitating) and therefore have higher coverage, but have coarser spatial resolution (~20-50 km) and radiometric performance, cannot be used in coastal and marginal ice zone areas, and may be subject to other errors (due to e.g. radio frequency interference, RFI)

NOAA produces several L2 (Level 2) (original swath), L3 (gridded), and L4 (gap-free analysis) SST products in international Group for High-Resolution SST (GHRSST) Data Specifications version 2 (GDS2) and makes them available from NOAA CoastWatch:

Reference web page at NOAA: https://coastwatch.noaa.gov/cw_html/sst.html

Earth as a Greenhouse

If you have problems understanding the science side of the (so called*) debate on Global Warming, consider Earth as a greenhouse**.

Whoops! It actually is!

Earth's global energy budget (PDF)
References: Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl, 2009: Earth’s global energy budget (PDF). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, No. 3, 311-324,

Gases in the atmosphere that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases.

The USA’s Environmental Protection has an interesting webpage at https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases that details the types of gases and their relative impact on Global Warming.

The most common and pervasive of these is, of course, Carbon Dioxide, known by its chemical designation CO2 and or the variation on that that is used by non-science types, CO2.

View the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015 (published 2017), developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Visit the public comments page to learn more about comments EPA received on the public review draft of the 1990-2015 GHG Inventory report.

Prior year versions of the GHG Inventory are available on the U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Archive page. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-sinks-1990-2015

https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-sinks-1990-2015

But, possibly unknown to the Administrator of EPA, the USA’s Department of Energy (DOE) has been working in the same area but with the objective of not only understanding sources and sinks of greenhouse gases like Carbon Dioxide, but with and eye to doing something about reducing it.

Here’s are some key links and a chart from the DOE website, Let’s hope that they don’t get “modified” in the pursuit of “political nonscience” – if this link vanishes, you’ll know – but in the interest of transparency we have copied the image and published it here.

The largest contributor to these emissions is from electricity production (73 percent).(click to learn more about sources and sinks)

The diagram depicting the stationary anthropogenic CO2 emissions by major industry is (from a DOE web page https://www.netl.doe.gov/research/coal/carbon-storage/carbon-storage-faqs/what-are-the-primary-sources-of-co2).

WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY SOURCES OF CO2?

Diagram depicting the stationary anthropogenic CO2 emissions by major industry.
The largest contributor to these emissions is from electricity production (73 percent).
(click to enlarge)

 Myth: Carbon dioxide comes only from anthropogenic sources, especially from the burning of fossil fuels.
Reality: Carbon dioxide comes from both natural and anthropogenic sources; natural sources are predominant.

Are the additional emissions of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere impacting the climate and environment?

To learn more, search the web! The search engine that doesn’t track you and use your preferences in their business is DuckDuckGo.com and their search results for a search on “greenhouse effect” is at: https://duckduckgo.com/?q=greenhouse+effect&t=hf&ia=web.

_______________

*In a real debate both sides are assumed to be sincere. Most of the Global Warming critics deny proven science and few, if any, can provide reproducible, alternate scientific basis for their arguments. They just argue, the last bastion of obstructionism.

Thus, the deniers “side” is widely suspected of being not only insincere, but also biased against the facts in order to avoid taking needed action and denying only out of some other agenda than saving mankind’s future.

Recently some politicians in the USA have grudgingly agreed that the Earth is warming but continue the denial of man’s influence and the need to reduce greenhouse gases. Thus inaction persists in the USA and other countries with deniers in power. 

However the rest of the civilized world has better science educated populous and elected representatives and they are making an effort to help slow the effects of greenhouse gases.

**https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect

Glossaries

There are many specialized glossaries that cover the terms describing the unique details of temperature and moisture sensors and their uses and this page represents an attempt to index most of them and related topics, such as Meteorology, in one place.

CONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS:

Thermistors: https://www.temperatures.com/blog/2018/04/04/thermistor-gloss…-and-terminology/.

Thermocouples:

RTDS: 

NONCONTACT TEMPERATURE SENSORS:

Many online articles about radiation thermometry and its uses (infrared thermometers, radiation pyrometers) exist including technology articles, PowerPoint slide presentations and .pdf downloads, but they seem to be vanishing as more and more “big businesses” take over these specialized sensors.But few are aimed at being useful glossaries or definition of terms.

There are some exceptions and some well-crafted pieces that have been online for a while and can be found in semi-hidden corners of the Web.

Thermal Radiation Thermometers: temperature_measurement_radiation_thermometers

Thermal Imaging:  (Glossary of Basic Thermography Terms) http://www.ne-spintech.com/Glossary%20of%20Basic%20Thermography%20Terms.pdf .

Meteorology

American Meteorological Society’s (AMS) Glossary of Meteorology

The electronic version of the second edition of the AMS Glossary of Meteorology is a living document and meant to be periodically updated as terms in the field evolve. To that end, AMS has established a Chief Editor for the Glossary who is responsible for updating/revising existing terms and adding new terms. Learn more about the Glossary and current Editorial Board.

For recommendations on correctly citing and referencing the Glossary of Meteorology, please see the Glossary entry for Citation.

If you have any feedback or editing suggestions to the content in this Glossary, please contact the Chief Editor.

Glossary – NOAA’s National Weather Service

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the NWS. Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years and before many NWS products were directly available to the public.

Glossary of Weather, Climate and Ocean 2nd Edition

ISBN: 9781935704799

Intended for educators, students and the public and inspired by increasingly interest in the atmosphere, ocean and our changing climate, this glossary provides an understandable, up-to-date reference for terms frequently used in discussions or descriptions of meteorological, oceanographic and climatological phenomena. In addition, the glossary includes definitions of related hydrologic terms.

Clearly this page is a work in progress, and it may be expanded in time. Priority will be according to the response it garners.

About The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) & More!

GCOS-aboutOnline — GCOS, the Global Climate Observing System, is a joint undertaking of:

  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO),
  • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and
  • The International Council for Science (ICSU).

 

Its goal is to provide comprehensive information on the total climate system, involving a multidisciplinary range of physical, chemical and biological properties, and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, cryospheric and terrestrial processes.

It is built on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS), the IOC-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-UNEP-UNESCO-ICSU Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) and a number of other domain-based and cross-domain research and operational observing systems.

It includes both in situ and remote sensing components, with its space based components coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS).

GCOS is intended to meet the full range of national and international requirements for climate and climate-related observations.

As a system of climate-relevant observing systems, it constitutes, in aggregate, the climate observing component of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

The Global Observing System is an extremely complex undertaking, and perhaps one of the most ambitious and successful instances of international collaboration of the last 100 years. It consists of a multitude of individual observing systems owned and operated by a plethora of national and international agencies with different funding lines, allegiances, overall priorities and management processes.

Learn more at: https://library.wmo.int/opac/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3417 ,  http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=AboutGCOS  and https://public.wmo.int/en/programmes.

 

WMO World Weather & Climate Extremes Archive

About The Archive

Screen Shot 2017-09-14 WMO Archive PageOnline —  In 2006, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Climatology (CCl) WMO OPAG 2 group unanimously agreed to the creation of a world archive for verifying, certifying and storing world weather extremes.

They agreed that a set of procedures should be established such that existing record extremes are verified and made available to the general public and that future weather record extremes are verified and certified.

They agreed that future weather extremes would be evaluated by a committee consisting of the WMO CCl Rapporteur for Climate Extremes, the chair of the OPAG 2 group, the chair of the overarching CC1 group, a regional authority, and as necessary an authority associated with the specific type of record (temperature, pressure, hail, tornado, tropical cyclone, etc.).

The committee would recommend a finding to the Rapporteur. The Rapporteur for Climate Extremes would have final authority and responsibility for certifying the record.

All accepted and verified record extremes (with corresponding metadata) are to given on this website.

Inquiries for consideration of new world/regional weather records should be made to the Rapporteur for Climate Extremes: Randy Cerveny (cerveny@asu.edu)

 

Archive TaWorld Meteorological Organization's World Weather & Climate Extremes Archivebles include:

Temperature: Highest & Lowest Temperature

Pressure: Highest Sea Level Air Pressure Below 750 m, Highest Sea Level Air Pressure Above 750 m, and Lowest Sea Level Air Pressure (excluding tornadoes).

Rainfall: Greatest 1-Min Rainfall, Greatest 60-Min Rainfall, Greatest 12-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 24-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 48-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 72-Hr Rainfall, Greatest 96-Hr Rainfall, and Greatest 12-Mo Rainfall.

Hail: Heaviest Hailstone

Aridity: Longest Dry Period

Wind: Maximum Gust, Maximum Gust for Tropical Cyclone

Lightning :Longest Distance Lightning Flash, Longest Duration Lightning Flash

Weather-Related Mortality:  Highest Mortality: Lightning, Highest Mortality: Lightning (single stroke), Highest Mortality: Tropical Cyclone, Highest Mortality: Tornado, Highest Mortality: Hailstorm

Hemispheric Weather & Climate Extremes

Continental Weather & Climate Extremes: Based on World Meteorological Organization Defined Regions

World Tornado Records

World Tropical Cyclone Records

World Meteorological-Related Phenomena Records

Open MapViewer

and,

Latest News

Members of the inaugural WMOCCL OPAG2 committee for the World:

  • Craig Donlon (United Kingdom)
  • Jay Lawrimore (United States)
  • Rainer Hollmann (Germany)
  • Thomas C. Peterson (United States)
  • Wan Azli Wan Hassan (Malaysia)
  • Xiaolan Wang (Canada)
  • Zuqiang Zhang (China)

 

Current managers of the WMO Weather and Climate Extremes Archive are:
Dr. Randy Cerveny, School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University
Bohumil Svoma, School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University

Visit the Archive online at: https://wmo.asu.edu/

US National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).

Finding Data by Category

Online — The demand for high-value environmental data and information has dramatically increased in recent years. To improve their ability to meet that demand, the USA’s former three NOAA data centers

  1. The National Climatic Data Center,
  2. The National Geophysical Data Center, and
  3. The National Oceanographic Data Center, which includes the National Coastal Data Development Center,

have merged into the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI – www.ncei.noaa.gov/).

NCEI is responsible for hosting and providing access to one of the most significant archives on Earth, with comprehensive oceanic, atmospheric, and geophysical data.

From the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun and from million-year-old sediment records to near real-time satellite images, NCEI is the Nation’s leading authority for environmental information.

NCEI continues the tradition of excellence, unmatched expertise, and trusted, authoritative data that the previous three Data Centers established. The top priority during the near future is to build on the full spectrum of atmospheric, oceanographic, coastal, and geophysical products and services that the Data Centers delivered.

While NCEI’s product portfolio will evolve as current products and services are assessed, no products or services are currently slated to be cut or reduced. By using consistent data stewardship tools and practices across all of our science disciplines and by forging an improved data management paradigm, we expect to provide users with improved access to environmental data and information archive products.

For more information, please visit www.ncei.noaa.gov.

Will their websites’ URLs change?

Existing links and domain names (e.g., www.ncdc.noaa.gov) for the Data Centers will continue to be accessible. Over time, the merged Data Centers will develop a plan to consolidate domains.

This change will be advertised, and all appropriate redirects will be established.

The NCEI landing webpage has been established as an overview to the new organization.

How will this impact users?

The goal is to provide minimal impacts to users in the short-term. Existing products and services will remain on their current sites, and access will not change. In the long-term, the merger will improve the creation of new products and the access and delivery of existing products and services to users.

A Trusted Authority on Weather and Climate Information

The Nation needs a trusted authority on weather and climate information. Every day, governments, businesses, and individuals make long-term decisions—affecting lives and livelihoods—that require an accurate understanding of the natural environment. NCEI is well positioned to respond to this need by building upon the former National Climatic Data Center’s 61 years of data and customer-focused science, service, and stewardship.

NCEI develops national and global datasets, which are utilized to maximize the use of our climatic and natural resources while also minimizing the risks caused by climate variability and weather extremes. NCEI helps describe the climate of the United States and it acts as the “Nation’s Scorekeeper” regarding the trends and anomalies of weather and climate.

NCEI’s climate data have been used in a variety of applications including agriculture, air quality, construction, education, energy, engineering, forestry, health, insurance, landscape design, livestock management, manufacturing, national security, recreation and tourism, retailing, transportation, and water resources management.

Find Data by Category

About NOAA

NOAA, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, provides daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings, and climate monitoring to fisheries management, coastal restoration and supporting marine commerce, NOAA’s products and services supporting economic vitality. These affect more than one-third of America’s gross domestic product. NOAA’s dedicated scientists use cutting-edge research and high-tech instrumentation to provide citizens, planners, emergency managers and other decision makers with reliable information they need when they need it.

About Climate Data at Berkeley Earth

Berkeley Earth
Berkeley Earth – team meeting 6/25/2013. Clockwise starting in the lower left: Saul Perlmutter, Pamela Hyde, Richard Muller, Jonathan Wurtele, Arthur Rosenfeld, Don Groom, Steven Mosher, Zeke Hausfather, Elizabeth Muller, Robert Rohde.

Online — Berkeley Earth (http://berkeleyearth.org) was conceived by Richard and Elizabeth Muller in early 2010 when they found merit in some of the concerns of skeptics.

They organized organized a group of scientists to reanalyze the Earth’s surface temperature record, and published their initial findings in 2012.

Berkeley Earth became an independent non-profit 501(c)(3) in February 2013.

From 2010-2012, Berkeley Earth systematically addressed the five major concerns that global warming skeptics had identified, and did so in a systematic and objective manner.

The first four were potential biases from (1) data selection, (2) data adjustment, (3) poor station quality, and (4) the urban heat island effect.

Their analysis showed that these issues did not unduly bias the record. More details on the website’s About Page at: http://berkeleyearth.org/about/

Overview of findings: http://berkeleyearth.org/summary-of-findings.

Air Pollution Overview

Some Other Berkeley Earth Website Content

Berkeley Earth Blog

Learn more

Berkeley Earth has published five scientific papers setting out the main conclusions of the study to date:

  1. A New Estimate of the Average Earth Surface Land Temperature Spanning 1753 to 2011
  2. Berkeley Earth Temperature Averaging Process (commonly referred to as the “Methods” paper) and its appendix
  3. Influence of Urban Heating on the Global Temperature Land Average
  4. Earth Atmospheric Land Surface Temperature and Station Quality in the United States
  5. Decadal Variations in the Global Atmospheric Land Temperatures

The Berkeley Earth team is making these preliminary results public, together with the analysis programs and data set in order to invite additional scrutiny as part of the peer review process.

You can also look up the temperature record by location (city, country, etc.).

 

Global Temperatures | Global Warming, is it Real?

Recent International News about Global Warming and a few link errors in our original webpage with this same title, prompted a recast of this page in the new format of this website and fix and amplify it.

It seems that only those with the least knowledge of the Climate Change situation seem to be arguing about the basic fact of Global Warming. It is real and to deny it, is, in our opinion, an indication that those who do so, should take the time to learn the real facts, and if necessary the science underlying them.To those who don’t trust science, better get rid of your TV, Internet, smartphone and all that other “stuff” based on real science; they are then, also, not tobe trusted.

Denials don’t change facts:

  • Glaciers are melting worldwide, so is sea ice.
  • The average temperature of the Earth has been increasing for many years,
  • Sea levels have been and continue rising.
  • Carbon Dioxide content in the atmosphere is increasing.

Real Climate BannerCountries meeting at U.N. environmental conference in Montreal Canada on November 20, 2005 adopted the rules for limiting emissions of greenhouse gases under the U.N.’s Kyoto Protocol.

Of course this is connected to the concerns over Global Warming, with Carbon Dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion long considered a major source contributing to the problem.

There has been some speculation in the media along with some outright condemnation of the concept of Global Warming. Yet, scientists and other media, mostly quoting science reports, indicate that Global Warming is indeed upon us.

The book The Discovery of Global Warming tells much of the history behind the concern. It would seem that it is about time we got up off our collective rear end and made some changes.

What is the truth? Is there a clear answer to the question about Global Warming’s reality? Is the science reliable?

Are the temperature measurements and trends of ancient temperature measurements to be believed?

What about the questions raised by many politicians and in books by more noted writers, like Michael Crichton in his best seller State of Fear?

Today the answer seems much clearer. It is a real concern.

We need to get our leaders to acknowledge the problem and take some positive steps to work with the rest of the industrial nations to abate it!

There is obviously much more.

First, realize that the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) published a detailed rebuttal to Crichton’s comments in his book. Their very interesting website also has a complete story on Global Warming, as one might expect from concerned scientists.

They are detail-oriented, not like most of the critics of global warming, many of whom appear to seek simple answers! No is the answer of those who refuse to face facts.

Then there is RealClimate.org, a website founded and maintained by scientists to tell the story details about Global Warming, Climate Change and its likely consequences. It is a notable effort to help the rest of us understand the real debate – among scientists, not politicians, religious zealots or modern Luddites.

We found their website so compelling that we have added their current newsfeed at the top right of this page.

The American Institute of Physics has a summary page, part of a series of pages on the subject.They are authored by the same scientist and science historian, Dr. Spenser R. Weart who wrote the book on Global Warming described and pictured at the top of this page.The pages brings you up to date from the 2003 book through February 2014, with keylinks to other websites where the details can be found.The amount of evidence is staggering!

For those so inclined to do their own analyses, there are tons of data available from monitoring websites around the world.

One of the favorite data sources is the Hadley Meteorology Centre, a British Government facility, in the UK. Their webpage shows the impacts global annual increase of just a small amount.

They also publish the actual data in tabular format that can be easily imported into almost any spreadsheet like MS Excel, Pages, Lotus 1-2-3, Open Office or Star Office Calc, then plotted and analyzed separately from ones generated by the Hadley folks.

Is the data from which the averages are calculated valid? There’s little doubt mostly because there has been such widespread interest in the subject and it has been the attention of so many capable people.

Are the answer and the calculations simple? In a word, NO!

They are complex and require attention to all sorts of details including all the other influencing factors involved in cyclic and irregular changes in the Earth’s temperature and its distribution.

The recent, popular book, A Matter of Degrees by Prof. Gino Segre at the University of Pennsylvania talks about aspects of Earth’s temperature history and the many astronomical and other physical factors that influence it.

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and the World Resources Institute jointly operate a website called GLOBAL WARMING: Early Warning Signs at www.climatehotmap.org.

They present a world map marked with tags to indicate “Fingerprints” and “Harbingers” of Global Warming as further education to the fact that Global Warming is not just happening in the future, it has already begun and the evidence is there, if we care to take notice.

Wikipedia, The Open and Free Encyclopedia on the Web has an extensive array of articles and links about Global Warming. As of December 2, 2005, the following statement, with embedded links to sources, appeared in the article:

“The scientific consensus on global warming is that the Earth is warming, and that humanity’s greenhouse gas emissions are making a significant contribution. This consensus is summarized by the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

In the Third Assessment Report, the IPCC concluded that “most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities”. This position was recently supported by an international group of science academies from the G8 countries and Brazil, China and India”. <

There are many more websites with wide ranging information about this and related ecological conditions. One of the best that we have found is ClimateArk the Climate Change Portal. It has an RSS news feed that is updated daily and a search engine that searches the entire contents of 2000 reviewed climate websites.

[rssonpage rss=”http://www.ucsusa.org/rss.xml” feeds=”7″ excerpt=”false” target=”_blank|_self”]

Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!